PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate one institution_s experience with treatment outcomes for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma. METHODS: Using our prospective Colorectal Database, we identified patients diagnosed with rectal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution between 1983 and 2005. Pathology was rereviewed, tumor immunophenotype was compared to control cases of anal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, treatment modalities and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified (10 females median age, 58 years). Median distal extent of tumors was 7 (range, 5-8) cm from the anal verge. Treatment included chemotherapy only (n = 1), chemoradiation only (n = 2), induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation and surgery (n = 2), chemoradiation followed by surgery (n = 5), and surgery followed by chemoradiation (n = 2). The chemotherapy regimen was 5-fluorouracil-based. Radiotherapy total dose was 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/day, daily Â 5) external iliac and inguinal nodes were not included in the radiation field. Complete clinical responders to chemoradiation (n = 2) received no further treatment. All seven partial responders underwent surgery; six had complete pathologic response; nodal status in two of six was unknown because they had local excision. Immunophenotypical analysis showed similar keratin expression profile between rectal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 5) and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 5), which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 10). All patients were alive without evidence of disease at follow-up (median follow-up, 2.6 (range, 0.5-16) years). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that most patients treated with upfront chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery did well. Sphincter-preserving surgery is usually feasible. Clinical judgment of tumor response after chemoradiation is not completely reliable. Immunohistochemistry suggests a common cellular origin for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma.
Anal Pap smears alone were not sensitive enough to rule out anal dysplasia. We recommend that high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy be incorporated as a complementary screening test for anal dysplasia in high-risk patients. Following baseline high-resolution anoscopy, these individuals could be followed with serial anal cytology to dictate the need for future high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsies.
Colonoscopic examination of the entire colon remains the standard for visualization, biopsy and treatment of colonic affections. The incidence of complication of endoscopy of the large bowel is quite low, even in a school hospital.
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was introduced in 1983 as a minimally invasive technique allowing the resection of adenomas and early rectal carcinomas unsuitable for local or colonoscopic excision which would otherwise require major surgery. After 25 years, there is still much debate about the procedure. This article presents the TEM technique, indications, results and complications, focusing on its role in rectal cancer. The controversial points addressed include long-term results, TEM in high-risk T1 lesions, TEM associated with combined modality therapy (CMT) for invasive rectal cancer and salvage therapy after TEM. The future perspectives for TEM are promising and its association with CMT will probably expand the select group of patients who will benefit from the procedure.
PURPOSE: Anal stenosis is a rare, incapacitating, and challenging condition, occurring mainly after hemorrhoidectomy, for which several surgical techniques have been devised. The purpose of this study was to describe early and late (1 year) results of 77 anoplasty operations performed in the Colorectal Unit of our institution. METHODS: From 1977 to 2002, 77 patients with moderate to severe anal stenosis underwent surgery using two sliding graft techniques: 58 underwent Sarner´s operation and 19 underwent Musiari´s technique. Bilateral flaps were used in 7 patients. RESULTS: Early morbidity was due to pruritus occurring in 2 patients, urinary infection in 1, and temporary incontinence in 1 patient. One patient needed early reoperation following suture line dehiscence. Late results (1 year) were classified as good in 67 cases (87%). There was no reoperation due to recurrence of stenosis. Conclusion: The ease of performance, good functional results, and lack of severe complications show that Sarner´s and Musiari´s flap advancement techniques are effective and safe methods for surgical correction of anal stenosis, particularly when cutaneous fibrosis plays a major role in its etiology.
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