The aim of the bioassay-guided fractionation was the selection of the most potent group of compounds responsible for the protection of sunflower bee pollen grains. Synthesis of prospective antifungal polyamides of hydroxycinnamic acids was based on previous structural elucidation of ethanol soluble fraction by 1H,1H-PFG-COSY, 1H,13C-HSQC, FT-IR, FT-Raman, and LC–MS experiments. The main compounds found were tri-p-coumaroylspermidines accompanied by other HCAA of spermidine and putrescine. Several model HCAA derivatives were prepared to test their antifungal activity against widespread spoilage fungi (A. niger 42 CCM 8189, F. culmorum DMF 0103, and P. verrucosum DMF 0023). A. niger CCM 8189 and F. culmorum DMF 0103 exhibited higher resistance to the antifungal effects of hydroxycinnamic acid amides, whereas P. verrucosum DMF 0023 was the most sensitive strain. It has been discovered the effect of HCAA polarity on the role of secondary metabolites in the microbial protection of pollen grains. The combination of bioassay-guided fractionation, structural elucidation, selection of prospective compounds, and their synthesis to determine their antifungal properties could be considered as an original approach.
Horáčková Š., Mühlhansová A., Sluková M., Schulzová V., Plocková M. (2015): Fermentation of soymilk by yoghurt and bifidobacteria strains. Czech J. Food Sci., 33: 313-319.Soy and milk based products fermented by yoghurt culture YC-381 alone or in combination with two probiotic cultures (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB 12 and Bifidobacterium bifidum CCDM 94) were prepared. Bacteria growth, the amounts of lactic acid, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde were compared after 16 h of fermentation at 37°C. The changes of isoflavones concentrations were also monitored in soy products. The growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria was similar in both media, but Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus showed a better growth in milk. Titratable acidity and the concentrations of acids were consistently higher in cow milk than in soymilk at the end of fermentation. Bifidobacteria, compared to the yoghurt culture, were only able to acidify the media to the half values. Comparing the bifidobacteria strains, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB 12 exhibited a better ability to acidify milk. The strain Bifidobacterium bifidum CCDM 94 was able to release 6.90 mg/100 ml of isoflavone aglycones in soymilk.
Horáčková Š., Žaludová K., Plocková M. (2011): Stability of selected lactobacilli in the conditions simulating those in the gastrointestinal tract. Czech J. Food Sci., 29 (Special Issue): S30-S35.The cell survival in the digestive tract is one of the main criteria required for the probiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 151; L. casei CCDM 198; L. rhamnosus CCDM 150, and L. fermentum ST 68) in conditions simulating those in the gastrointestinal tract as compared to the commercial probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei LAFTI L-26. The growth of lactobacilli decreased both after 2 h and 4 h incubation in MRS media with increasing concentration of bile salt but all lactobacilli had the ability to adapt in the environment of bile salt. Great differences in viability were detected between the isolated cells in the stomach simulating conditions. L. casei LAFTI L-26 and L. acidophilus CCDM 151 were most stable, L. rhamnosus CCDM 150 did not survive under these conditions. Milk revealed a strong protective influence on the viability of all lactobacilli in the stomach simulating conditions. The conditions existing in the small intestine did not influence the cell viability. Differences in autoaggregation were also observed.
Sedláčková P., Horáčková Š., Shi T., Kosová M., Plocková M. (2015): Two different methods for screening of bile salt hydrolase activity in Lactobacillus strains. Czech J. Food Sci., 33: 13-18.Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity of intestinal bacteria (including lactobacilli) is one of the indirect ways of decreasing a cholesterol level in human body. Tested Lactobacillus strains were isolated from various sources (faeces of fully breast-fed infants, cow's colostrum, cow's raw milk cheeses, and cow's raw milk) and identified by genotypic and phenotypic methods. All strains, including three commercial probiotic strains and six culture collection strains, were subsequently tested for their BSH activity via two methods -thin layer chromatography (TLC) and plate assay. Among all the 59 Lactobacillus strains, 15 strains were shown to be BSH positive by TLC method and only 8 of them by plate assay. Most of the BSH positive strains (9 strains) were isolated from faeces. Differences between BSH activities for sodium salts of cholyltaurine and cholylglycine were demonstrated. The TLC method was shown to be more sensitive compared to the plate assay for BSH activity determination.
Horáčková Š., Sedláčková P., Sluková M., Plocková M. (2014): Influence of whey, whey component and malt on the growth and acids production of lactobacilli in milk. Czech J. Food Sci., 32: 526-531.The effect of whey powder, whey protein concentrate, caseinomacropeptide, and malt addition into milk on the growth and acid production of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei Lafti L-26, Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 151, and Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198) was evaluated. The ability of these strains to use different types of saccharides from milk and plant sources was also tested. Glucose, galactose, fructose and maltose were utilised by all tested strains. The results showed that the addition of malt positively affected the growth of lactobacilli strains compared to the growth in milk enriched by whey ingredients. The addition of malt increased significantly the production of d(-) isomer of lactic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 151 and Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198 and the production of acetic acid by Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198.
The addition of flaxseed meal and flaxseed oil on the growth and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 151 and yoghurt culture CCDM 21 during cold storage in fermented milk was tested. It was found that the oil addition in the amount of 0.6% w/w in milk did not influence the growth and acid production of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 151, while the acidification activity of yoghurt culture was slightly lower compared to pure milk and connected with lower growth of Streptococcus thermophilus. On the contrary the addition of meal in amount of 7.6% w/w into milk stimulated the growth and acid production of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 151. The viability of both tested cultures during one month storage of fermented milks at 5 ± 1°C was not influenced by the oil supplementation but the addition of meal decreased their viability significantly. The unusual volatile compounds acetone and butane-2-on were detected by SPME-GC in yoghurt with meal. Unlike oil, the addition of flaxseed meal increased the yoghurt firmness and influenced negatively yoghurt taste and flavour.
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