INTRODUCTION Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is associated with higher survival rates and better quality of life among patients with coronary artery disease. 1,2 Use of left internal thoracic artery (LITA) grafts has been correlated with long-term benefits, 3 but this often requires pleurotomy and insertion of tubes to drain the cavity. 4,5 Pleural drains can be inserted into the subxiphoid region or the intercostal space with the main objective of maintaining or restoring the negative pressure of the pleural space. 6 However, they may impair the integrity of the ventilatory system, thereby compromising the respiratory mechanics and gas exchange after surgery. 7-9 Respiratory muscle strength may be evaluated through maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), which indicate the strength of the inspiratory and expiratory muscle groups respectively. 10 Predictions for MIP and MEP according to age and sex should preferably be considered within their clinical setting, because they may lead to a prognosis of postoperative pulmonary complications like respiratory muscle fatigue or failure. 11-13 MIP and MEP can be measured with the aid of a manometer or manovacuometer. In addition to being practical and non-invasive, this equipment has low cost, is easy to apply at the bedside and only requires simple inspiration and expiration movements from the patient. Studies on individuals undergoing CABG surgery have shown that insertion of the pleural drain in the subxiphoid position can minimize the chance of trauma to the thoracic wall, may preserve respiratory function in the immediate postoperative period and may lead to lower levels of subjective pain, compared with lateral intercostal insertion. 14-20 However, most of these studies
In a double-blind study of 41 outpatients aged 55 to 80 years with mild memory impairment, the efficacy of dihydroergotoxine mesylate (DEM, Hydergine) at 6 mg per day, administered orally, was tested during a twelve-week period. Specific etiologies for the amnesic syndrome were ruled out by history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Subjects with a Hamilton Depression Scale rating above 18, ie, possible pseudodementia, were excluded. Physician rating of memory, employing the Inventory of Psychic and Somatic Complaints in the Elderly (IPSC-E), indicated statistically significant improvement of memory function in DEM treated subjects (N = 22) v those on placebo (N = 19), (F = 3.34; df = 1,39; P less than .04). In contrast, structured testing of recent memory using digit symbol substitution and Zahlenverbindungs test (ZVT) showed improvement in both groups (P less than .001) with no significant intergroup differences (P less than .10). Out results indicate that in cases of mild, though subjectively distressing impairment, DEM at higher dosages may help to enhance short-term memory function.
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