Treatment with CPAP promoted significantly but small reductions in blood pressure in individuals with OSA. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the effects of long-term CPAP and the impact on cardiovascular risk.
BACKGROUND: Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) produces beneficial effects in COPD subjects, but the effects of expiratory muscle training (EMT) and EMT plus IMT in ventilatory training are still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review the effects of EMT and EMT plus IMT compared to control groups of COPD subjects. METHODS: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. The search strategy included MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, PEDro, and Cochrane CENTRAL and also manual search of references in published studies on the subject. Randomized trials comparing EMT and EMT plus IMT versus control groups of subjects with COPD were included. The outcomes analyzed were respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. RESULTS: The search retrieved 609 articles. Five studies were included. We observed that EMT provided higher gain in maximum expiratory pressure (P E max 21.49 cm H 2 O, 95% CI 13.39 -29.59) and maximum inspiratory pressure (P I max 7.68 cm H 2 O, 95% CI 0.90 -14.45) compared to control groups. There was no significant difference in the 6-min walk test distance (29.01 m, 95% CI ؊39.62 to 97.65) and dyspnea (0.15, 95% CI ؊0.77 to 1.08). In relation to EMT plus IMT, we observed that P E max (31.98 cm H 2 O, 95% CI 26.93-37.03) and P I max (27.98 cm H 2 O, 95% CI 20.10 -35.85) presented higher values compared to control groups. CONCLUSIONS: EMT and EMT plus IMT improve respiratory muscle strength and can be used as part of the treatment during pulmonary rehabilitation of subjects with severe to very severe COPD.
ObjectiveEvaluate the interaction between high-intensity inspiratory muscle training
(IMT) and aerobic exercise on physical capacity, respiratory muscle
strength, peripheral muscle strength, and quality of life of patients who
underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).MethodsTwenty-four patients underwent CABG were randomized into two groups. During
36 sessions, one group received IMT associated with aerobic exercise and the
other group received only aerobic exercise. Primary outcome was the distance
in the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) test. Secondary outcomes included
respiratory muscle strength, peripheral muscle strength, and quality of
life. Measures were taken at the baseline, at the 12th session,
the 24th session, and 36th session.ResultsBaseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There was no
statistically significant difference between the two groups in any outcome
[6MWD - P=0.935; peak oxygen consumption
(PeakVO2) - P=0.853; maximal inspiratory
pressure (MIP) - P=0.243; maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)
- P=0.268; sitting-rising test (SRT) -
P=0.212], but there was interaction in MIP
(P=0.000) and all outcomes improved in the two groups
(6MWD - P=0.000; PeakVO2 -
P=0.000; MIP - P=0.000; MEP -
P=0.000; SRT - P=0.000).ConclusionThere was an improvement of all outcomes in both groups, but IMT was not able
to provide additional benefits. The use of this combination should be used
with caution to not generate higher costs in the rehabilitation process of
Congenital heart disease promotes hemodynamic changes that can contribute to reduce exercise capacity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the exercise capacity of children and adolescents with cyanotic congenital heart disease and to assess respiratory muscle strength, plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide and ventricular ejection fraction, as well the associations between these variables. Cross-sectional study that evaluated 48 patients between 6 and 18 years-old that underwent a six-minute walk test (6MWT), respiratory muscle strength, dosage of B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiography. The mean age was 13.3 ± 4.1 years, and the most prevalent heart disease was tetralogy of Fallot (54.2 %). The average distance walked was 452.7 ± 73.2 m, significantly below the predicted (69 %) (p < 0.001). The maximum inspiratory pressure was above the predicted result (111.4 %), average 58.2 ± 22.3 (p = 0.56), and the maximum expiratory pressure was 63.2 ± 23.3 cm H2O, significantly below the predicted (63 %) (p < 0.001). The level of B-type natriuretic peptide was elevated in all patients, with a median of 2087.17 (502.54-4,768.05). The ventricular ejection fraction showed a median of 65.9 (41-100). There was no correlation between the 6MWT, ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.05; p = 0.72), inspiratory muscle strength (r = 0.03; p = 0.81), expiratory muscle strength (r = 0.09; p = 0.05) and B-type natriuretic peptide (r = -0.04; p = 0.77). Children and adolescents with cyanotic congenital heart disease present a lower exercise capacity and expiratory muscle strength. No associations were found between exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, B-type natriuretic peptide and left ventricular ejection fraction.
TENS associated with pharmacological analgesia provides pain relief compared to the placebo TENS in postoperative thoracic surgery patients both approached by thoracotomy and sternotomy. In the sternotomy it also provides more effective pain relief compared to pharmacological analgesia alone, but has no significant effect on pulmonary function.
Low-frequency TENS decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and increases parasympathetic nervous system activity and high-frequency TENS increases diastolic blood pressure, when applied on the paravertebral ganglionar region in the hypertensive patients.
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