The spittlebug family Cercopidae is currently divided into two subfamilies: the paraphyletic Old World Cercopinae and the monophyletic New World Ischnorhininae. The most recent classification scheme proposed by Fennah in 1968 divided the New World Cercopidae into four tribes: Tomaspidini, Ischnorhinini, Hyboscartini and Neaenini. Herein we present a phylogenetic analysis of Ischnorhininae using 108 morphological characters and including 53 of the 59 recognized genera, to evaluate the tribal-level classification and understand the processes underlying the current distributional patterns of these genera. We found significant support for the monophyly of many Neotropical genera, but Fennah's tribal classification is revised because tribes Neaenini, Ischnorhinini and Tomaspidini were recovered as polyphyletic. Hyboscartini was synonymized with Tomaspidini. A taxonomic key to tribes and genera of Neotropical spittlebugs is provided based mostly on recovered apomorphies. The biogeographical analysis suggests a Neotropical origin of ischnorhinines, more specifically in northwestern South America. This was possibly coincident spatially and temporally with the origin of grasses, with ancestral range expansions southward to the Amazonian and Paraná regions, and posterior vicariant events, possibly related to the expansion of forests in the Chacoan region, the South America diagonal of open formations. Dispersals to the Chacoan region and to the Nearctic region are hypothesized to have occurred only within genera. In the Chacoan region it is associated with more recent events, such as the diversification of C4 grasses and establishment of the savannas and seasonally dry forests.
ABSTRACT. Sharpshooter leafhoppers (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae) in citrus groves of the area of Bebedouro, SP, with description of a new species of Acrogonia Stål. Sixteen species of Cicadellidae, subfamily Cicadellinae, were collected and identified: 11 of the tribe Cicadellini and five of the tribe Proconiini. The ten most common species, together with a new species, are characterized based on external morphology and male genitalia: Acrogonia citrina Young, 1977 and P. mollicella (Fowler, 1900). The leafhopper samples were collected in citrus groves and in adjacent habitats (woods, swamp, cultivable plain, spontaneous vegetation of the grove, coffee crop and sugarcane) at the counties of Bebedouro and Monte Azul Paulista and in the district of Turvínia. The collecting methods were: insect net, yellow sticky cards, portable suction trap and Malaise trap. Identification keys were elaborated for the 16 species. There is a great diversity of Cicadellinae species in the citric groves. In the three areas sampled, it was collected a larger number of species of the tribe Cicadellini than of the tribe Proconiini. In the Bebedouro area, the vector species of Xylella fastidiosa, A. citrina sp. nov., B. xanthophis, D. costalimai and O. facialis, were collected in the citrus groves and in all adjacent habitats.
Os membros desse grupo estão entre os menores cicadelídeos, com tamanho dos adultos variando entre 4,0 e 7,0mm. Linnavuori (1959), ao revisar a subfamília, propôs sua divisão em duas tribos: Xestocephalini, com representantes distribuídos em todas as regiões zoogeográficas (com exceção da Europa e da maior parte da Ásia), e Portanini, na região Neotropical. Portanini contém um gênero (Portanus Ball, 1932) e 52 espécies. As espécies dessa tribo podem ser diferenciadas das de Xestocephalini, pelas seguintes características, segundo Linnavuori (1959): (1) corpo longo e delgado; (2) face alongada; (3) fronte retangular; (4) clípeo com lados proximamente paralelos; (5) loros grandes, estendendo-se até o ápice do clípeo; (6) antenas usualmente longas, quase tão longas quanto o corpo; (7) lóbulos supra-antenais, em vista lateral, carenados e oblíquos; (8) coroa triangularmente projetada; (9) sutura coronal longa e (10) estilos com ápice alargado e bífido. No presente trabalho um novo gênero e uma nova espécie
-The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the infl uence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identifi ed. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management.KEY WORDS: Species monitoring, Cicadellidae, natural system, agricultural ecosystem RESUMO -A população de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha foi estudada em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis), cafezais (Coffea arabica) e fl oresta estacional semidecidual com fi sionomia arbustiva, em Bebedouro (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar a infl uencia do ecossistema natural na composição de espécies do agroecossistemas. O monitoramento foi feito com cartões adesivos amarelos, os quais foram trocados a cada 15 dias, efetuando-se a contagem e identifi cação dos Auchenorrhyncha coletados. Capturou-se o total de sete famílias, 11 subfamílias e 98 espécies, sendo Cicadellidae o grupo mais abundante. A fl oresta nativa apresentou a maior riqueza, diversidade e equitabilidade de espécies de Auchenorrhyncha, demonstrando ser mais estável que os demais habitats. Os altos valores de similaridades obtidos entre os agroecossistemas e a fl oresta demonstram que grande parte das espécies de cigarrinhas que está ocorrendo nos habitats agrícolas também está ocorrendo na fl oresta, indicando que esta pode estar funcionando como reservatório de espécies. A abundância de grupos taxonômicos de Auchenorrhyncha coletados variou nos habitats avaliados, sendo Proconiini o mais abundante no cafezal próximo à fl oresta, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae e Coelidiinae no pomar de laranja e cafezal distante da fl oresta; Cicadellinae e Agalliinae não se relacionaram a nenhum dos habitats. A presença de
Wolfniana viridis sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the municipality of Ipixuna (along Liberdade and Gregório rivers), state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from the type-species, W. limbatula (Osborn, 1926), by the color pattern which lacks conspicuous orange markings on head, pronotum, and forewing commissure; and aedeagal shaft with apex broadly expanded. Based on specimens of Rotigonalia concedula Melichar, 1926 and R. curvula Cavichioli, 2000, collected along with W. viridis, Rotigonalia Young, 1977 is firstly recorded from the state of Amazonas and R. concedula is firstly recorded from Brazil
-The causal agent of citrus variegated clorosis, Xylella fastidiosa, is transmitted by leafhoppers of the subfamily Cicadellinae, whose species vary regionally. The goal of this study was to identify potential vectors of this pathogen in citrus groves of Bahia North Coast, Brazil. The survey was done from March/2002 to February/2003 in three seven-to nine-year-old sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, Pêra variety) groves located in Rio Real, BA. Fifteen yellow sticky cards (8.5x11.5 cm) were installed 40 m apart in each grove, hanged at 1.5 m high on the upper north side of citrus canopies, and replaced fortnightly. A sweep net was periodically used to sample leafhoppers on herbaceous weeds inside the groves, by selecting fi ve points at random and performing 30 sweeps in each point. A total of 1,360 specimens of 49 Auchenorrhyncha species were collected in this study, mostly in the family Cicadellidae (90.2%). The subfamily Cicadellinae, which includes the sharpshooter vectors of X. fastidiosa, showed the largest number of species (14)
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