The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1%) for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%). Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99) and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33) were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals.Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, bubaline, seroepidemiology, control. ResumoOs objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a frequência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii e anti-Neospora caninum e identificar os fatores de risco associados com as soropositividades em búfalos do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram utilizados 136 búfalos oriundos de 14 propriedades. Para a detecção de anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-N. caninum, foi empregada a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Das 136 amostras analisadas, 17 (12,5%) foram positivas para anticorpos anti-T. gondii, com títulos variando de 64 a 1.024; e 26 (19,1%) para anticorpos anti-N. caninum, com títulos de 200 a 1.600. Das 14 propriedades, em 10 (71,4%) houve animais soropositivos tanto para T. gondii como para N. caninum. O manejo semi-intensivo (odds ratio = 2,99) e a presença de suínos (odds ratio = 4,33) foram identificados como fatores de risco para T. gondii e N. caninum, respectivamente. Sugere-se que T. gondii e N. caninum estão disseminados em búfalos do Estado da Paraíba, bem como a necessidade de mais estudos acerca da importância desses agentes nessa espécie e em suínos, e da influência do tipo de criação na ocorrência de animais soropositivos.
The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 51 wild animals at the Arruda Câmara Zoological-Botanical Park in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Blood samples from different bird, mammal and reptile species were analyzed using the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT) with a cut-off point of 1:25. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in 62.4% of the 51 tested animals. The following frequencies were found: 68.9% (20/29) in mammals, 80% (8/10) in birds, and 33.3% (4/12) in reptiles. This paper reports for the first time the occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in birds of the species Pionites leucogaster (caíque), Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (hyacinth macaw), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Urubitinga urubitinga (Brazilian eagle), and Buteo melanoleucus (black-and-white hawk-eagle). Reptiles of the species Caiman crocodilus (spectacled caiman), Chelonoidis carbonaria (red-footed tortoise) and Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier’s dwarf caiman) were seropositive for T. gondii, although the significance of the presence of these anti-T. gondii antibodies in this group of animals requires a more in-depth study. We conclude that the frequency of antibodies found in the animals of this zoo is high and that the prophylactic measures that aim to diminish the environmental contamination by oocysts are necessary.
The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of infections due to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum and corresponding risk factors among dogs attended at veterinary clinics in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 384 dogs that were attended at 34 veterinary clinics between April 2015 and May 2016. These two agents were diagnosed through the indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IFAT). Among the 384 animals evaluated, 37 (9.6%) were positive for T. gondii, with titers ranging from 16 to 512. Six dogs (1.6%) were positive for N. caninum, with titers of 50 to 200. Access to the streets (OR = 4.60; 95% CI = 1.74-12.20) and environments close to forested areas (OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.32-5.93) were found to be risk factors for T. gondii infection. The dogs attended at veterinary clinics in João Pessoa are exposed to infections caused by T. gondii and N. caninum. Dog owners should avoid having access to the street or contact with forest environments.
RESUMOO objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a frequência de propriedades positivas (focos) e de fêmeas bovinas soropositivas para a brucelose no Estado de Roraima, bem como identificar fatores de risco. Foram utilizados dados da Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Roraima (ADERR), coletados de suas quatro microrregiões, durante o período de janeiro de 2007 a julho de 2009. Durante esse período, foram examinadas 387 propriedades, e 9.087 soros de fêmeas bovinas com idade ≥ 24 meses foram submetidos ao diagnóstico sorológico da brucelose. Para a análise de fatores de risco, foi utilizada a regressão logística múltipla. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das propriedades investigadas, 106 (27,4%) apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo e, dos animais analisados, 369 (4,1%) foram soropositivos. Os fatores de risco identificados foram: possuir mais de 51 animais no rebanho (odds ratio = 1,87; p = 0,015) e alugar pasto (odds ratio = 2,20; p = 0,003). Sugere-se que esforços sejam concentrados na intensificação da vacinação de bezerras no Estado de Roraima com o intuito de que seja alcançada uma prevalência compatível com as ações de teste e sacrifício de animais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Brucella abortus, bovino, frequência, fatores de risco, epidemiologia (controle).ABSTRACT BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS IN RORAIMA STATE: RETROSPECTIVE STUDY. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of positive herds (foci) and seropositive bovine females for brucellosis in the state of Roraima, Northern region of Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors. Data from the Agency of Agricultural Protection in the state, collected from its four microregions during the January 2007 to July 2009 period, were used. During this period, 387 herds were examined, and 9,087 adult bovine female sera were submitted to the serological diagnosis of brucellosis. For risk factor analysis the multiple logistic regression was used. A herd was considered focus when presented at least one seropositive animal. Of the herds investigated, 106 (27.4%) had at least one seropositive animal, and of the animals examined, 369 (4.1%) were seropositive. Risk factors identified were: herd size larger than 51 animals (odds ratio = 1.87; p = 0.015) and pasture rental (odds ratio = 2.20; p = 0.003). It is suggested that efforts must be concentrated on the intensification of heifer vaccination in the State of Roraima in order to reach a prevalence value compatible with actions of test and sacrifice of animals.
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of animals that tested positive for brucellosis and leptospirosis and the risk factors for these diseases in the State of Paraíba. A total of 136 buffaloes from 14 herds were examined. For brucellosis, we used the buffered acidified plate antigen (BAPA) test as screening method and 2-mercaptoethanol as confirmatory test. For leptospirosis, we conducted a microscopic agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off point of 1:100. Of the animals examined, two [1.5%; 95% CI = 0.4%-5.2%] were positive for brucellosis, and 38 (27.9%; 95% CI = 21.1%-36.0%) were positive for leptospirosis. The brucellosis-positive animals were from two (14.3%) herds, while nine (64.3%) herds had leptospirosis-seropositive animals. The more frequent Leptospira spp. serotypes were Bratislava, Pomona, and Canicola. We concluded that leptospirosis was widespread in buffaloes in the state of Paraíba and suggested that breeding alongside horses and pigs might be an important factor in the spread of leptospirosis-positive animals. The presence of brucellosispositive animals indicated the possibility of negative-impacting measures on disease control in bovines, and it is therefore recommended that greater attention be given to these animals for brucellosis control. Key words: Brucella abortus, buffalo, Leptospira spp, Northeast Brazil, seroepidemiology ResumoO objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a frequência de animais reagentes e os fatores de risco para brucelose e leptospirose em búfalos do Estado da Paraíba. Foram utilizados 136 búfalos oriundos de 14 propriedades. Para o diagnóstico da brucelose empregou-se como teste de triagem o antígeno acidificado tamponado (AAT) e o teste do 2-mercaptoetanol (2-ME) como prova confirmatória. Para leptospirose foi realizado o teste de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM), com ponto de corte 1:100. Dos 136 animais examinados dois (1,5%; IC 95% = 0,4% -5,2%) foram positivos para brucelose e 38 (27,9%; IC 95% = 21,1% -36,0%) para leptospirose. Os animais positivos para brucelose foram procedentes de duas (14,3%) propriedades, enquanto para leptospirose nove (64,3%) propriedades apresentaram animais soropositivos. Os sorovares de Leptospira spp. mais frequentes foram Bratislava, Pomona e Canicola. Conclui-se que a leptospirose encontra-se disseminada em búfalos do Estado da Paraíba, e sugere-se que a criação consorciada com equinos e suínos pode ser um fator importante na ocorrência de animais positivos. A presença de animais positivos para brucelose indica a possibilidade de impacto negativo nas ações de controle da doença em bovinos, e dessa forma recomenda-se que maior atenção seja dada a esses animais do ponto de vista do controle da brucelose. Palavras-chave: Brucella abortus, búfalo, Leptospira spp., Nordeste do Brasil, soroepidemiologia
Resumo AbstractThe aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus,
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Leptospira sp. in dogs attended at veterinary clinics in the city of João Pessoa, State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. A total of 384 blood samples from dogs from 34 veterinary clinics were used from April 2015 to May 2016. The diagnosis of Leptospira sp. was carried out through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), using a collection of 20 pathogenic antigens and adopting a 1: 100 dilution as cutoff point. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the owners of the animals to obtain data to be used in the analysis of risk factors. The prevalence of seropositive animals was 11.7% (45/384), with reactions for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae (62.3%), Grippotyphosa (22.2%), Canicola (13.3%), Djasiman 2%) and Pomona (2.2%). The following risk factors were identified: age from 49 to 72 months (odds ratio = 2.74), Age > 72 months (odds ratio = 3.22), and monthly cleaning of the environment where the animals are kept (odds ratio = 10,70). It is concluded that dogs attended at veterinary clinics in João Pessoa are exposed to infection by Leptospira sp., with predominance of serogroups kept by wild animals, and it is suggested that the periodic cleaning of the environment where the animals are kept.
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