The host-plant associations and life histories of weevils in the pantropical tribe Derelomini are reviewed in light of new phylogenetic insights. The most immediate derelomine ancestor likely had a ‘special association’ with the inflorescences of palms (Arecaceae) involving pollination and oviposition into dispensable male flowers. Case studies of select genus groups show multiple historical forces driving their diversification. In the South and Central American genus Celetes, abundant host shifts are important, though clearly not enough to account for the existence of all species. Females of the Neotropical genus Staminodeus have remarkable morphogical and behavioural modifications for exploiting the staminodes of cyclanth (Cyclanthaceae) inflorescences. The evolution of males in this genus is mostly explained by sexual selection. Cyclanthura illustrates the potential of the weevils for colonising hosts with widely divergent inflorescence biologies, including arums (Araceae) in the genus Anthurium. Members of the Ganglionus–Systenotelus clade, in turn, are exclusively associated with the cyclanth genus Carludovica. A phylogenetic trend in this group to attack the plants’ seeds has led to a series of counteracting transformations in inflorescence morphology. Overall there were at least three independent secondary host shifts to dicots, including one in the taxonomically complex genus Phyllotrox. The results suggest that in this particular tribe of weevils, focusing on the homology of specific biological traits in individual lineages is more likely to produce new knowledge than a formalistic, large-scale approach.
Studies on feeding ecology of fishes are important to understand the relationship between species and environmental seasonal variations. In tropical rivers, these relationships are mainly modeled by hydrological patterns. Thereby, this study aimed to assess the influence of fluviometric variation and life stage (juveniles and adults) in the feeding ecology of Serrasalmus gouldingi in the lower Anapu River region, located in Eastern Amazon, Pará, Brazil. Specimens were collected bimonthly, considering four different hydrological periods. We assessed the diet composition, feeding intensity and niche breadth of the species. Thirty-two dietary items were identified and grouped into ten categories. A total of 279 stomachs were analyzed, showing a predominance of fish fragments, followed by fruits and seeds. The diet composition of S. gouldingi differed only between drought and flood season, although it did not differ between juveniles and adults. An increase in feeding intensity was recorded during the rise in the water level, with a lower feeding intensity observed during transitional season. Serrasalmus gouldingi showed lower niche breadth during flood season, attributed to the high consumption of fruits and seeds, presenting an omnivorous diet with high tendency towards piscivory. Although less evident than in other Amazon watersheds, the flood pulse in the lower Anapu River region is an important factor influencing the feeding ecology of the species. KEYWORDS: Amazon basin, diet, flood pulse, niche breadth, repletion index.Ecologia alimentar de Serrasalmus gouldingi (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae) na região do baixo Rio Anapu, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil RESUMO Estudos sobre ecologia trófica dos peixes são importantes ferramentas para compreensão das relações entre as espécies e as variações sazonais no ambiente. Em rios tropicais essas relações são modeladas principalmente por variações hidrológicas. Sendo assim, o objetivo presente estudo é avaliar a influência variação fluviométrica e do estágio de vida (juvenis e adultos) na ecologia alimentar de Serrasalmus gouldingi na região do baixo Rio Anapu, Amazônia Oriental, Pará, Brasil. Os espécimes foram amostrados bimensalmente considerando quatro períodos hidrológicos distintos. Nós avaliamos a composição da dieta, intensidade alimentar e amplitude de nicho da espécie. Foram identificados trinta e dois itens alimentares agrupados em dez categorias. Um total de 279 estômagos foi analisado, registrando um predomínio no consumo de fragmento de peixes seguido por frutos e sementes. A composição na dieta de S. gouldingi diferiu apenas entre os períodos de seca e cheia, não diferindo entre juvenis e adultos. Uma maior intensidade alimentar foi observada durante o aumento do nível dos rios, com uma menor intensidade alimentar durante os períodos transicionais. Durante o período de cheia S. gouldingi também evidenciou uma menor amplitude de nicho, a qual foi atribuída ao elevado consumo de frutos e sementes. Sendo assim, a dieta de S. gouldingi foi classificada como...
Feeding habits of the midnight catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus collected in rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest (Eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were investigated through the different hydrological periods (dry, filing, flood and drawdown). A total of 589 specimens were collected throughout seven samplings between July 2008 and July 2009, of which 74 were young males, 177 adult males, 89 young females and 249 adult females. The diet composition (Alimentary index - Ai%) was analyzed by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and by the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), which included 37 items grouped into nine categories (Aquatic insects, Other aquatic invertebrates, Arthropods fragment, Fish, Plant fragment, Seeds, Terrestrial insects, Other terrestrial invertebrates, and Terrestrial vertebrates). We also calculated the niche breadth (Levins index) and the repletion index (RI%). Differences in the diet composition between hydrological seasons were registered, primarily on diet composition between dry and flood season, but changes related with sex and maturity were not observed. The midnight catfish showed more specialists feeder habit in the flood period (March 2009) and more generalist habits in the dry season (November 2008). The amount of food eaten by A. longimanus based on repletion index (RI%), did not differ significantly from sex and maturity. However, we evidenced differences in RI% when comparing the studied months. These results provide important biological information about the trophic ecology of auchenipterids fish. In view of the higher occurrence of allochthonous items, this research also underpins the importance of riparian forests as critical environments in the maintenance and conservation of wild populations of fish in the Amazon basin.
The buriti, Mauritia flexuosa, is the most common palm in Brazil, where it has considerable ecological and economic importance. However, few data are available on the phenology of the species, mainly in coastal restinga ecosystems. The present study monitored the reproductive phenology of M. flexuosa in the restinga of Barreirinhas, in the Brazilian Northeast, and investigated the relationship between phenophases and climatic variables. The presence/absence of flowers and fruits was recorded monthly in 25 individuals of each sex between August, 2009, and October, 2012. There was no difference in the phenology of male and female specimens, with flowering and fruiting occurring exclusively in the dry season. We believe that the specific abiotic characteristics of the study environment, such as the intense sunlight and availability of water in the soil, contribute to the reproductive success of M. flexuosa in the dry season, with consequent germination and establishment of seedlings occurring during the subsequent rainy season.Keywords: buriti, ecology, Maranhão, palm tree. Fenologia reprodutiva de
Schizomids are arachnids typically found on the ground of areas with rainforest, living in the moist litter. Here we describe Surazomus algodoal sp. nov. from a coastal, dry environment on an island of the state of Pará, Brazil, in the Atlantic Ocean. Only one male has been collected, but the morphology of the flagellum is unique. Surazomus algodoal sp. nov. represents the first epigean schizomid living only in a dry forest and the easternmost record for Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher. The type of dry vegetation in which the animal was found covers only a small area and is endangered by human use. The new species is considered critically endangered using the IUCN criteria.
Resumo. Os besourosolanaceae é uma das famílias de plantas de maior interesse econômico mundial devido seu uso na alimentação, indústria farmacêutica, jardinagem e medicina tradicional (Lavie 1986;Roddick 1991;Hawkes 1999;samueLs 2009;Lim 2013). Considerando somente o cultivo de batatas, tomates, berinjelas e pimentões, as solanáceas correspondem a cerca de 28 milhões de hectares cultivados no mundo e mais de 600 milhões de toneladas produzidas ao ano (Fao 2014). Com distribuição cosmopolita, Solanaceae apresenta cerca de 2700 espécies em 98 gêneros, contudo, um único gênero -Solanum, concentra cerca de 50% (1330) O jiloeiro é originário da Nigéria, África, enquanto que a berinjeleira tem origem ainda controversa, sendo comumente sugerida a Índia, além da China e África (Lim 2013). Os frutos dessas solanáceas, jiló e berinjela respectivamente, possuem sabor amargo e são bastante apreciados na culinária, além disso, possuem alto valor nutricional e propriedades medicinais (matsuBaRa et al. 2005;Lim 2013). Devido as suas exigências climáticas, o jiló e a berinjela são tipicamente cultivados nas regiões tropicais da África, Ásia e América do Sul (Lim 2013). No Brasil, essas hortaliças foram introduzidas durante a colonização portuguesa: a berinjela no século XVI pelos portugueses e o jiló no século XVII pelos africanos (madeiRa 2008).
Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov. is described from eastern Amazon. The male has a pentagonal flagellum, similar to those of three other species in the genus. These four species are herein gathered as the arboreus-group of Surazomus. We present a brief synopsis of chaetotaxy description in hubbardiines and several homology proposals for the flagellum of the species in the arboreus-group: the posterior lobes may be homologous to the lateral lobes of hubbardiine species with trilobed flagella; the setal brush with 4–5 setae on the posterior lobe may be composed of one Dl2 seta and enlarged lobular microsetae; the single, median posterior coupling pocket may be homologous to the pair of posterior pockets seen in other hubbardiines; the single, median anterior coupling pocket may be homologous to the pair of pockets on the anterior border of the flagellum seen in other hubbardiines. Based on the morphology of these pockets and the chelicerae within Surazomus, we discuss the anchoring mechanism during the mating march.
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