The results indicate that the BCPNN can be used in the detection of significant signals from the data set of the WHO Programme on International Drug Monitoring. The BCPNN will be an extremely useful adjunct to the expert assessment of very large numbers of spontaneously reported ADRs.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of phytol using chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice and to assess its antioxidant effects in vitro. Phytol was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to mice at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, phytol significantly reduced the number of contortions compared to the control group (P < 0.001). In the formalin test, phytol reduced significantly the amount of time spent in paw licking in both phases (the neurogenic and inflammatory phases), this effect being more pronounced in the second phase (P < 0.001). Phytol also provoked a significant increase in latency in the hot plate test. These antinociceptive effects did not impaire the motor performance, as shown in the rotarod test. Phytol demonstrated a strong antioxidant effect in vitro in its capacity to remove hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide as well as to prevent the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Taken as a whole, these results show the pronounced antinociceptive effects of phytol in the nociception models used, both through its central and peripheral actions, but also its antioxidant properties demonstrated in the in vitro methods used.
Studies have shown that diterpenes have anti-inflammatory and redox-protective pharmacological activities. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of phytol, a diterpene alcohol, in a mouse model of acute inflammation, and phytol effect on leukocyte recruitment, cytokines levels, and oxidative stress. The anti-inflammatory activities of phytol were assessed by measuring paw edema induced by different inflammatory agents (e.g., λ-carrageenan, compound 48/80, histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and prostaglandin E2 [PGE2 ]), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, peritonitis model and cytokine levels. Further, oxidative stress was evaluated by determining glutathione (GSH) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. The results showed that phytol (7.5, 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, phytol (75 mg/kg) inhibited compound 48/80-, histamine-, serotonin-, bradykinin- and PGE2 -induced paw edema. It also inhibited the recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils; decreased MPO activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, and MDA concentration; and increased GSH levels during carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. These results suggest that phytol attenuates the inflammatory response by inhibiting neutrophil migration that is partly caused by reduction in IL-1β and TNF-α levels and oxidative stress.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency with an associated mortality of 10-12% . Pilocarpine-induced seizure models have provided information on the behavioral and neurochemical characteristics associated with seizure activity [2,3]. Other studies suggest permanent changes in different biochemical systems during SE. An increase in lipid peroxidation, a decrease in GSH content, and excessive free radical formation may occur during SE induced by pilocarpine [4,5].This model can be used to investigate the development of neuropathology in SE . Despite numerous studies clearly indicating the importance of enzyme activity in the epileptic phenomenon, the mechanisms by which these enzymes influence SE are not completely understood [7,8]. Therefore, we decided to study enzymatic activity related to oxidative stress mechanisms during SE .Oxidative stress, which is defined as the over-production of free radicals, can dramatically alter neuronal function and has been related to SE [10,11]. It is particularly facilitated in the brain, as the brain contains large quantities of oxidizable lipids and metals, and, moreover, has fewer antioxidant mechanisms than other tissues .Free radicals are chemical entities characterized by an orbital containing an unpaired electron . This electron confers on these molecules a strong propensity to react with target molecules by giving or withdrawing one electron from the target molecules to complete their own orbital . Superoxide, a free radical, can be generated in the brain by several mechanisms such as The role of oxidative stress in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus was investigated by measuring lipid peroxidation level, nitrite content, GSH concentration, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. The control group was subcutaneously injected with 0.9% saline. The experimental group received pilocarpine (400 mgAEkg )1 , subcutaneous). Both groups were killed 24 h after treatment. After the induction of status epilepticus, there were significant increases (77% and 51%, respectively) in lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentration, but a 55% decrease in GSH content. Catalase activity was augmented 88%, but superoxide dismutase activity remained unaltered. These results show evidence of neuronal damage in the hippocampus due to a decrease in GSH concentration and an increase in lipid peroxidation and nitrite content. GSH and catalase activity are involved in mechanisms responsible for eliminating oxygen free radicals during the establishment of status epilepticus in the hippocampus. In contrast, no correlations between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were observed. Our results suggest that GSH and catalase activity play an antioxidant role in the hippocampus during status epilepticus.Abbreviations ROS, reactive oxygen species; SE, status elipticus.
BackgroundSchistosomiasis is a major endemic disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Since the treatment and control of this parasitic disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, it is imperative that new effective drugs are developed. Here, we report that phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, possesses promising antischistosomal properties in vitro and in a mouse model of schistosomiasis mansoni.Methods and findings
In vitro, phytol reduced the motor activity of worms, caused their death and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed extensive tegumental alterations in a concentration-dependent manner (50 to 100 µg/mL). Additionally, phytol at sublethal doses (25 µg/mL) reduced the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In vivo, a single dose of phytol (40 mg/kg) administered orally to mice infected with adult S. mansoni resulted in total and female worm burden reductions of 51.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Moreover, phytol reduced the number of eggs in faeces (76.6%) and the frequency of immature eggs (oogram pattern) was significantly reduced. The oogram also showed increases in the proportion of dead eggs. Confocal microcopy studies revealed tegumental damage in adult S. mansoni recovered from mice, especially in female worms.ConclusionsThe significant reduction in parasite burden by this chlorophyll molecule validates phytol as a promising drug and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis. Phytol is a common food additive and nonmutagenic, with satisfactory safety. Thus, phytol has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy.
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