In this work, phytochemical examination of fresh juice and methanolic peel, pulp extract revealed the presence of diverse bioactive organic components. The antioxidant activity of Citrus sinensis L. (Sweet Orange) juice extract (JE) and crude methanolic extract of pulp and peel (MPPE) were tested. Two fungal strains and six bacterial strains (3 gramme positive and 3 gramme negative) were tested. Citrus sinensis plant extracts show antibacterial action against both bacterial strains, according to the research, but there is no efficacy against fungal strains. MPPE has higher antibacterial activity than J.E, this may be because phenolic and flavonoid compounds are found.
Recently, botanical insecticides have more alertness in pest control programs for its various advantages. Alhagi maurorum plant (camel thorn) one of the important medicinal plants in Fabaceae. The phytoacaricidal activity of A. maurorum plant extracts was evaluated against Panonychus citri. The aerial part of A. maurorum was extracted by methanol, petroleum ether, and water separately using the soaking and Soxhlet extraction. The rate of female daily deposited eggs varied considerably according to A. maurorum plant extracts and the sublethal concentrations. A few numbers of eggs laid were observed with the methanol extract (0.73 eggs), petroleum ether (2.16 eggs), and aqueous (4.31 eggs) at LC 75 , while the high number observed in the untreated female groups (29.37 eggs) and Selecron insecticide (6.99 eggs). The same pattern was occurred in the hatchability with the tested bio-acaricides compared with Selecron insecticide and untreated ones. Based on sublethal dose LC 25 , LC 50, and LC 75 , the tested acaricides was significantly reduced the number of hatched eggs, where it reached (30.7, 13, 5.6%), (37.6, 21.6, 15%) and (44.3, 30.8, 23.8%) for methanol, petroleum ether, and aqueous plant extract, respectively compared with untreated groups (91.2%). Concurrently, data showed that methanol extract has a significantly impacted on the reduction of viability (58.16%) and reproductive process while the effect was less with the aqueous plant extracts (46.21%). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis identified various bioactive complexes (phenols, tannins, and fatty acids) with insecticidal activity. The peak of compounds was higher in Benzene, (1-butylhebtyl)-undecane, 5-phenyl (8.75 %), Maltol 4H-pyran-4-one,3-hydroxy-2-methyl(2.74%) 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, linolenic acid (2.45%) in petroleum ether extract and 4H-pyran-4one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl (3.66%), 2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl) (3.33%), Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalatehalic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester (5.58%) in methanol extract. 2,3-Dimethylpenzene-1,4-dicarbonitrile (20.26%), 4-Fluoroveratrole, fluorobenzene,3,4-methoxy (19.52%) and Hexadecanoic acid (0.87 %). Finally, we concluded that methanol, petroleum ether, and aqueous extracts screened showed phytoacaricidal activity against mite P. citri.
Alhagi maurorum (A. maurorum) is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the family leguminasae, commonly known as camel thorn. This research was amid to identify the chemical compounds in the aerial part of A. maurorum using GC-mass analysis. Three solvents with different polarities were used for the extraction of chemical constituents (water, methanol and petroleum ether). The results of GC-MS analysis led to identification of various compounds. In total, thirty-nine compounds from petroleum ether extract, thirty-two compounds in methanolic extract and seventeen compounds in aqueous extract were identified. Majority of the identified compounds have been reported to possess many biological activities. Among them, we reported 10 new anticancer compounds (Vitamin E; Hexadecanoic acid; Stigmast-5-en-3-ol; Phytol,2-hexadecen-1-ol,3,7,11,15-tetramethyl; Squalene; Hexadecanoic acid; 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester; Oxime,methoxy-phenyl,methyl N-hydroxyben-zenecarboximidoate; Ergost-5-en-3-ol; 9,12- Octadecad-ienoic acid and Farnesol) from A. maurorum using three solvent, while the best effective solvent was petroluem ether. Therefore, we report that A. maurorum has great potential to be developed into anticancer drugs.
Background: The present study was concerned with the control (advantage concept) of five most problematic invasive species (Arctium lappa, Datura innoxia, Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora and Retama raetam) in Egypt. The main objective is to manage and control these species by maximizing and researching their medicinal, agricultural and economic profits. Different approaches of interest were carried out through the probable use of A. lappa, D. innoxia and P. juliflora in medicine as anticancer agents. Results: From the agriculture sustainability point of view, high extract concentration levels of L. camara was used with success to suppress and reduce the germination and growth of Phalaris minor (noxious weed in wheat fields) to be used as ecofriendly bioherbicides. Contrariwise, R. raetam was applied on specific low extract concentration to increase the productivity of some crop species such as Hordeum vulgare under water shortage strategies via stimulating the drought resistance. Conclusion: It is possible to set up various factories for this purpose with the aim of transforming these plants from types harmful to the environment and humans into exporting types for many products that are used medically and agriculturally.
The main purpose of this work was to study the effect of TMV infection on physiology of active gradient photochemicals and protein expression in infected tobacco plants. Impact of Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) on active gradient photochemicals quantitative and qualitative was evaluated in Nicotiana tobaccum cv. white burly. First, the TMV samples were isolated from single local lesions of infected leaves of N. glutinosa. Then, the N. tobaccum cv. white burly plants were inoculated with TMV. The infected plants showed severe systemic mosaic symptoms and reduction of leave size. We used Datura metel as a diagnostic tool-plant (indicator) for mosaic virus because of its vast exhibitory ability to show the symptoms incited by viruses. It was confirmed that these symptoms were due to the effect of TMV virus, comparing with Datura plant (as control). Analysis of TMV infected leaves by GC-mass detected biosynthesis of novel photochemicals (2-cyclopenten-1-one, Furfural, Indene, Pyrrole, Benzonitrile, Guaiacol and Oxime, methoxy-phenyl) that could not be detected in healthy plants. Furthermore, a 56.17% decreased in nicotine content was observed in infected plants compared with healthy ones. Also, increase of soluble protein contents was observed in infected leaves in response to TMV infection, compared with healthy ones. Alterations in protein patterns were observed in N. tabaccum leaves in response to TMV infection using SDS PAGE. Several secondary bioactive compounds were also found to hold important functions in infected plants. For example, flavonoids could protect against free radicals generated during photosynthesis. Terpenoids may attract pollinators or seed dispersers, or inhibit competing plants. Alkaloids usually ward-off herbivore animals or insect attacks (phytoalexins).
Medicinal plants are an essential source of therapeutic ingredients, being also the basis of traditional or original healing systems. Many medicinal plants belong to the family Lamiaceae. The Mint is the common name of about 25 perennial species of the genus Mentha. The essential oils of the Mentha species and their extracts are well documented and possess antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, pesticide, and antioxidant properties. The current study aimed to collect and genotype mint species from different sources using fluorescently labeled AFLP technique to asses the genetic variability and elucidate highresolution genetic markers related to oil content and/or oil quantity. A total of 11 mint samples were analyzed using AFLP technique; among the three primer pair combinations showed number of peaks ranged between 49 to 117, with a minimum band size in base pair of 50 bp to 661 bp. The overall mean of number of bands per individual is 99, while the total number of polymorphic loci is 254. Based on the maximum likelihood hybrid index method, two samples were found misclassified or possibly hybrids. Out of the 254 polymorphic bands, 16 were found specific to the high oil-content group [A] compared to 95 bands that were specific for the low oil-content group [B]. In group A, two bands, P1.23 and P2.28, were found fixed as present in group A while absent from group B, the bands were scored from the primer pairs 1 and 2 of 297 and 140 bp, respectively; and considered as positive markers to high-oil content. However, no negative marker was found. When the two possible hybrids were inspected, the positive marker number 1 [PP1.23] was found consistent and absents in the two samples, which increase its validity as a positive marker for high-oil content, while was not the same case for the second marker. Comparing both the whole dataset and the selected markers using AMOVA and PCoA, the elucidated markers should higher genetic differentiation among the studied groups than the whole dataset. The selected markers can be applied for markerassistant selection breeding program and early preselection of high-oil content samples for future studies related to the oil content in Mentha sp.
is a plant that belongs to the family asteraceae which is used in medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorder in addition it is used as food in some parts of Africa and Asia (Hussain et al.,2010). The genus Sonchus comprises about 60 species, three of which have become a common weed around the world. These are S. arvensis, perennial Saw thistle and the two annual species S. oleraceus, and S. asper.
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