In this work, phytochemical examination of fresh juice and methanolic peel, pulp extract revealed the presence of diverse bioactive organic components. The antioxidant activity of Citrus sinensis L. (Sweet Orange) juice extract (JE) and crude methanolic extract of pulp and peel (MPPE) were tested. Two fungal strains and six bacterial strains (3 gramme positive and 3 gramme negative) were tested. Citrus sinensis plant extracts show antibacterial action against both bacterial strains, according to the research, but there is no efficacy against fungal strains. MPPE has higher antibacterial activity than J.E, this may be because phenolic and flavonoid compounds are found.
Recently, botanical insecticides have more alertness in pest control programs for its various advantages. Alhagi maurorum plant (camel thorn) one of the important medicinal plants in Fabaceae. The phytoacaricidal activity of A. maurorum plant extracts was evaluated against Panonychus citri. The aerial part of A. maurorum was extracted by methanol, petroleum ether, and water separately using the soaking and Soxhlet extraction. The rate of female daily deposited eggs varied considerably according to A. maurorum plant extracts and the sublethal concentrations. A few numbers of eggs laid were observed with the methanol extract (0.73 eggs), petroleum ether (2.16 eggs), and aqueous (4.31 eggs) at LC 75 , while the high number observed in the untreated female groups (29.37 eggs) and Selecron insecticide (6.99 eggs). The same pattern was occurred in the hatchability with the tested bio-acaricides compared with Selecron insecticide and untreated ones. Based on sublethal dose LC 25 , LC 50, and LC 75 , the tested acaricides was significantly reduced the number of hatched eggs, where it reached (30.7, 13, 5.6%), (37.6, 21.6, 15%) and (44.3, 30.8, 23.8%) for methanol, petroleum ether, and aqueous plant extract, respectively compared with untreated groups (91.2%). Concurrently, data showed that methanol extract has a significantly impacted on the reduction of viability (58.16%) and reproductive process while the effect was less with the aqueous plant extracts (46.21%). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis identified various bioactive complexes (phenols, tannins, and fatty acids) with insecticidal activity. The peak of compounds was higher in Benzene, (1-butylhebtyl)-undecane, 5-phenyl (8.75 %), Maltol 4H-pyran-4-one,3-hydroxy-2-methyl(2.74%) 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, linolenic acid (2.45%) in petroleum ether extract and 4H-pyran-4one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl (3.66%), 2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl) (3.33%), Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalatehalic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester (5.58%) in methanol extract. 2,3-Dimethylpenzene-1,4-dicarbonitrile (20.26%), 4-Fluoroveratrole, fluorobenzene,3,4-methoxy (19.52%) and Hexadecanoic acid (0.87 %). Finally, we concluded that methanol, petroleum ether, and aqueous extracts screened showed phytoacaricidal activity against mite P. citri.
Alhagi maurorum (A. maurorum) is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the family leguminasae, commonly known as camel thorn. This research was amid to identify the chemical compounds in the aerial part of A. maurorum using GC-mass analysis. Three solvents with different polarities were used for the extraction of chemical constituents (water, methanol and petroleum ether). The results of GC-MS analysis led to identification of various compounds. In total, thirty-nine compounds from petroleum ether extract, thirty-two compounds in methanolic extract and seventeen compounds in aqueous extract were identified. Majority of the identified compounds have been reported to possess many biological activities. Among them, we reported 10 new anticancer compounds (Vitamin E; Hexadecanoic acid; Stigmast-5-en-3-ol; Phytol,2-hexadecen-1-ol,3,7,11,15-tetramethyl; Squalene; Hexadecanoic acid; 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester; Oxime,methoxy-phenyl,methyl N-hydroxyben-zenecarboximidoate; Ergost-5-en-3-ol; 9,12- Octadecad-ienoic acid and Farnesol) from A. maurorum using three solvent, while the best effective solvent was petroluem ether. Therefore, we report that A. maurorum has great potential to be developed into anticancer drugs.
Weed control in crop cultivations is a sustainable approach that can contribute to a reduction in pesticide use as part of an integrated pest management strategy. This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-herbicidal potential of shoot system of Ononis vaginalis Vahl. on Rumex dentatus L.; a major pest of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). General phytochemical screening of O. vaginalis showed an abundant production of allelochemicals as secondary metabolites which may play a role as natural herbicides. Germination and growth bioassays were conducted to investigate the effect of aqueous and crude powder of the donor species on some germination and growth parameters. Results showed that there was no significant effect of low concentrations on seed germination of V. faba in both pure and mixed cultures on contrarily to those recorded for R. dentatus; gradual decrease with increasing O. vaginalis concentrations in both cultures. On the other hand, total phenolics in V. faba shoot and root showed an increase under different treatments except in high concentration treatment. While in R. dentatus, total phenolics and flavonoids fractions in root of V. faba were decreased in response to different concentration treatments. On the other hand, flavonoids increase in shoots of R. dentatus, while decreasing in roots in mixed culture under high concentration treatments. In conclusion, the study confirmed the integration of O. vaginalis in existing weed control management systems. O. vaginalis could be further tested for suppression of weed growth under field conditions.
Background: The present study was concerned with the control (advantage concept) of five most problematic invasive species (Arctium lappa, Datura innoxia, Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora and Retama raetam) in Egypt. The main objective is to manage and control these species by maximizing and researching their medicinal, agricultural and economic profits. Different approaches of interest were carried out through the probable use of A. lappa, D. innoxia and P. juliflora in medicine as anticancer agents. Results: From the agriculture sustainability point of view, high extract concentration levels of L. camara was used with success to suppress and reduce the germination and growth of Phalaris minor (noxious weed in wheat fields) to be used as ecofriendly bioherbicides. Contrariwise, R. raetam was applied on specific low extract concentration to increase the productivity of some crop species such as Hordeum vulgare under water shortage strategies via stimulating the drought resistance. Conclusion: It is possible to set up various factories for this purpose with the aim of transforming these plants from types harmful to the environment and humans into exporting types for many products that are used medically and agriculturally.
The main purpose of this work was to study the effect of TMV infection on physiology of active gradient photochemicals and protein expression in infected tobacco plants. Impact of Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) on active gradient photochemicals quantitative and qualitative was evaluated in Nicotiana tobaccum cv. white burly. First, the TMV samples were isolated from single local lesions of infected leaves of N. glutinosa. Then, the N. tobaccum cv. white burly plants were inoculated with TMV. The infected plants showed severe systemic mosaic symptoms and reduction of leave size. We used Datura metel as a diagnostic tool-plant (indicator) for mosaic virus because of its vast exhibitory ability to show the symptoms incited by viruses. It was confirmed that these symptoms were due to the effect of TMV virus, comparing with Datura plant (as control). Analysis of TMV infected leaves by GC-mass detected biosynthesis of novel photochemicals (2-cyclopenten-1-one, Furfural, Indene, Pyrrole, Benzonitrile, Guaiacol and Oxime, methoxy-phenyl) that could not be detected in healthy plants. Furthermore, a 56.17% decreased in nicotine content was observed in infected plants compared with healthy ones. Also, increase of soluble protein contents was observed in infected leaves in response to TMV infection, compared with healthy ones. Alterations in protein patterns were observed in N. tabaccum leaves in response to TMV infection using SDS PAGE. Several secondary bioactive compounds were also found to hold important functions in infected plants. For example, flavonoids could protect against free radicals generated during photosynthesis. Terpenoids may attract pollinators or seed dispersers, or inhibit competing plants. Alkaloids usually ward-off herbivore animals or insect attacks (phytoalexins).
Bacteria major human illnesses, particularly in Africa and the Middle East areas Resistance and multi-resistant strains of bacteria continue to emerge, requiring the constant search and development of new treatments. The discovery of novel antimicrobial chemicals from diverse sources, such as bacteria, animals and plants, has been pursued extensively. Folk medicine is one of these useful sources of information and healing. New useful compounds might be discovered by conducting systematic screening of them (Tomoko et al.,2002). Some 77% of the active ingredients in plants were found after the ethnomedical applications of the plants began to be studied, according to one estimate (Cordell et al.,2000). There are an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 plant species on Earth, but only a tiny fraction (1 to 10 percent) of these are consumed as food by humans and other animal species, leaving a vast potential for the creation of medicinal plant products (Heinrich&Gibbons et al.,2001). Antimicrobials derived from plants, as opposed to manufactured medications, offer fewer side effects and a greater therapeutic potential for treating a wide range of infectious disorders (Iwu et al.,1999).Plants that contain a broad range of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and polyphenols, are typically thought to be better in their antibacterial properties (Cowan et al.,1999).
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