Background: There are few studies evaluating the natural history and prognostic variables in chronic mitral valve disease (CMVI) in a heterogeneous population of dogs.Objectives: To estimate survival and prognostic value of clinical and echocardiographic variables in dogs with CMVI of varying severity. Five hundred and fifty-eight dogs belonging to 36 breeds were studied.Methods: Dogs were included after clinical examination and echocardiography. Long-term outcome was assessed by telephone interview with the owner.Results: The mean follow-up time was 22.7 AE 13.6 months, and the median survival time was 19.5 AE 13.2 months. In univariate analysis, age48 years, syncope, HR4140 bpm, dyspnea, arrhythmias, class of heart failure (International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council), furosemide therapy, end-systolic volume-index (ESV-I)430 mL/m 2 , left atrial to aortic root ratio (LA/Ao)41.7, E wave transmitral peak velocity (Emax)41.2 m/s, and bilateral mitral valve leaflet engagement were associated with survival time when all causes of death were included. For the cardiac-related deaths, all the previous variables except dyspnea and EDV-I4100 mL/m 2 were significantly associated with survival time. Significant variables in multivariate analysis (all causes of death) were syncope, LA/Ao41.7 m/s, and Emax41.2 m/s. For cardiac-related death, the only significant variable was LA/Ao41.7.Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Mild CMVI is a relatively benign condition in dogs. However, some clinical variables can identify dogs at a higher risk of death; these variables might be useful to identify individuals that need more frequent monitoring or therapeutic intervention.
Type of composite and filling technique affected the CS, μTBS, UTS, and mechanical properties of large Class II restorations. The eight-increments filling technique resulted in generally less CS with the same μTBS and UTS than was obtained with 16 increments, without affecting E and VH through the depth of the composites.
Glomerular lesions that develop in dogs during infection with Leishmania organisms can be classified histologically as mesangial glomerulonephritis, membranous glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and focal segmental glomerulonephritis. Tubulointerstitial histopathologic conditions were not observed as the primary lesion, despite being evident in 23 of 41 (55%) dogs. Use of SDS-AGE for qualitative evaluation of proteinuria and successive collection of specimens during renal biopsies following diagnosis of nonselective glomerular proteinuria provides the possibility for early identification of renal lesions.
Dilution of canine blood with HES 130/0.4 results in a thromboelastometric pattern consistent with hypocoagulation and this effect appears to result from a dose-dependent alteration in fibrinogen concentration and inhibition of platelet function. As this is an in vitro study, further in vivo investigations are necessary to confirm the results.
Feline morbillivirus was first identified in healthy and diseased stray cats captured in Hong Kong. Recently, it was demonstrated that the virus circulates within cat populations in Japan, Italy, Germany, and the USA. Importantly, an association between feline morbillivirus infection and chronic kidney disease was suggested by histological analysis of kidney tissue of infected cats. The aim of this study was to verify the presence and examine the genetic diversity of feline morbilliviruses associated with infections of domestic cats in Brazil. Seventeen cats without clinical manifestations of urinary tract diseases from a multi-cat household and 35 random client-owned cats admitted to the Teaching Veterinary Hospital for a variety of reasons were evaluated for paramyxoviral infection and the presence of uropathy. A fragment of the paramyxoviral L gene was amplified from urine samples using a reverse transcription semi-nested PCR assay. For the first time, we detected a feline morbillivirus strain that was genetically related to viral strains previously characterized in Japan in urine samples from cats in South America, in Brazil. This together with the recent description of feline morbillivirus identification within cat populations in the USA, suggests a possible widespread distribution of this viral agent on the American continent. Our data demonstrated feline morbillivirus RNA shedding mostly in the urine of cats without clinical, laboratorial, or ultrasonographic signs of urinary tract diseases. In contrast to previously published findings that associated feline morbillivirus infection with chronic kidney disease, we did not observe a clear relationship between feline morbillivirus RNA shedding in urine and kidney disease in the cats evaluated.
Data from this study indicate that dogs with moderate heart failure caused by CMVI have systolic dysfunction. Inadequate hypertrophy of the left ventricle may be, in part, responsible for this finding.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of various clinical, ECG, echocardiographic, and Doppler echocardiographic variables in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. The relationship to survival of 11 variables was evaluated in 63 dogs. Studied variables were age at time of diagnosis, class of heart failure (HF), dyspnea, ascites, atrial fibrillation (AF), ejection fraction (EF), E-point septal separation, end-diastolic volume index, end-systolic volume index (ESV-I), and restrictive or nonrestrictive transmitral flow (TMF) pattern. Median survival time was 671 days (lower 95% confidence limit, 350 days). Survival curves showed that severity of HF, ascites, ESV-I greater than 140 mL/m2, EF less than 25%, and restrictive TMF pattern had a significant negative relation to survival time. Thirty-nine dogs with both sinus rhythm and AF presented adequate TMF recordings; in these dogs, after stratification by TMF pattern, the restrictive TMF pattern was the most important negative prognostic indicator. We conclude that in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy the restrictive TMF pattern appears to represent a useful prognostic indicator. Class of HF, ascites, ESV-I, and EF are also useful indexes if an adequate TMF pattern is not recorded.
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