A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.
Resumo:Um novo jogo, usando analogias, apresenta os principais aspectos da síntese protéica. O objetivo desta prática é melhorar a aprendizagem sobre o processo de síntese protéica para estudantes no ensino médio. Nós utilizamos materiais de baixo custo e de fácil acesso para o desenvolvimento deste jogo. Para que os alunos compreendam a teoria de é necessário uma aula introdutória sobre a síntese protéica, antes de a aplicação desta prática. Para jogar, os alunos são divididos em dois grupos. O professor fornece a cada grupo uma ficha, representando um aminoácido e uma tabela com o código genético. Os alunos começam o jogo ao responder as perguntas feitas pelo adversário para conseguir a permissão para a pesca da base nitrogenada. Se a resposta estiver correta a base nitrogenada será entregue para o grupo, que terá que preencher um painel que contém seqüências correspondentes ao RNA mensageiro, DNA complementar e DNA molde, decodificados a partir do aminoácido fornecidos pelo professor no início do jogo. O primeiro grupo que completar todas as etapas da síntese protéica ganha o jogo. A aplicação desta prática nas escolas do nível médio da cidade de Manaus obteve uma excelente aceitação pelos profissionais da educação, que relataram o grande entusiasmo dos seus alunos para utilizar o jogo e uma melhora na compreensão do tema abordado em sala de aula. Os professores também comentaram a versatilidade desta prática, que foi utilizada com sucesso para abordar outras questões. Logo o jogo é uma prática que pode ser desenvolvido para complementar as aulas teóricas sobre o assunto. Abstract:A new game, using analogies, presents the main aspects of protein synthesis. The purpose of this practice is to improve learning about the process of protein synthesis for students in high school. We use low cost and easy access materials to the development of this game. For students to understand the theory must be an introductory lecture on protein synthesis, before the implementation of this practice. To play, students are divided into two groups. The teacher gives each group a plug, representing an amino acid and a table with the genetic code. Students start the game by answering the questions raised by the opponent to get the permission for fishing from the nitrogen base. If the answer is correct the nitrogen bases will be delivered to the group, which will have to fill a panel that contains sequences corresponding to the messenger RNA, DNA and complementary DNA template, decoded from the amino acid provided by the teacher early in the game. The first group to complete all the steps of protein synthesis wins the game. The application of this practice in schools in the high schools of the Manaus city returned an excellent acceptance by the teachers, who reported the great enthusiasm of his students to use the game and an improvement in the understanding of the issue addressed in the classroom. Teachers also commented on the versatility of this practice, which was successfully used to address other issues. So the game is a practi...
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the occurrence of head lice in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Uberlandia, MG, Brazil, analyze associations with sex, ethnicity, age and hair characteristics, and verify awareness among elderly adults. Head inspections were performed and infestation was characterized on individual forms. A questionnaire on the biology, epidemiology and control of head lice was applied. Overall occurrence was 1.4%, being highest in elderly women with medium-length curly hair. Questionnaire responses indicated that the majority had no general knowledge on head lice. More than 40% reported infestation at some point in their lives and most knew how to control it. Overall occurrence was considered low and is related to measures adopted by the LTCFs, which controlled infestation by minimizing the influence of factors normally associated with its occurrence. The study was pioneer in analyzing associations between head lice and the degree of autonomy of elderly adults.KEY WORDS: Head lice; infestation; elderly adults; Uberlandia, MG.
Introduction: Isoenzymatic analyses were performed involving species of the Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles subgenera in order to estimate the intra and interspecies genetic variability. Methods: Mosquitoes were caught at different localities in the Amazon region. The collection and rearing of mosquitoes in the laboratory followed specific protocols. For the genetic variability analyses, the technique of horizontal electrophoresis on starch and starch-agarose gel with appropriate buffer systems was used. The alloenzyme variation was estimated using the Biosys-1 software. Results: Out of the 13 loci, eight were polymorphic. Anopheles nuneztovari presented the largest number of alleles per locus, while the smallest number was detected in Anopheles marajoara from Macapá. The largest number of polymorphic loci was found for Anopheles marajoara from Maruanum and the smallest for Anopheles benarrochi (Guayará Mirim). Anopheles darlingi (Macapá) presented the greatest heterozygosity (Ho = 0.167 ± 0.071), while the lowest heterozygosity (Ho = 0.045 ± 0.019) was observed in Anopheles intermedius (Pacoval) of the subgenus Anopheles. Wright's F coefficient revealed considerable genetic structuring between the populations of Anopheles darlingi (Fst = 0.110) and between the populations of Anopheles marajoara (Fst = 0.082). Conclusions: Considering all the species studied, the genetic distance ranged from 0.008 to 1.114. The greatest distance was between Anopheles mattogrossensis and Anopheles oswaldoi, while the smallest was between the Anopheles benarrochi populations.
Por meio de atividades lúdicas pedagógicas é possível desenvolver o senso de organização, o espírito crítico e competitivo, o respeito mútuo e a fixação do conteúdo com maior facilidade. A utilização de jogos como ferramenta pedagógica é uma ótima opção para auxiliar na exposição e/ou fixação dos diversos assuntos abordados durante as aulas. [...]
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