The influence of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on Escherichia coli cultures in submerse fermentation was studied. The fermentation processes were carried out recycling the culture medium externally through a stainless steel tube inserted in a magnetic field generator (solenoid). The exposure time and electromagnetic induction were varied in a range of 1 to 12 h and 0.010 to 0.10 T, respectively, according to a Box-Wilson Central Composite Designs of face centered with five central points. Growth of E. coli could be altered (stimulated or inhibited) under magnetic fieldinduced effects. E. coli cultures exposed at 0.1 T during 6.5 h exhibited changes in its viability compared to unexposed cells, which was 100 times higher than the control. The magnetic field generator associated with the cellular suspension recycle is a new way of magnetic treatment in fermentation processes and could be appropriate to industrial scale up.
The effect of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using sugar cane molasses was studied during batch fermentation. The cellular suspension from the fermentor was externally recycled through a stainless steel tube inserted in two magnetic field generators, and consequently, the ethanol production was intensified. Two magnetic field generators were coupled to the bioreactor, which were operated conveniently in simple or combined ways. Therefore, the recycle velocity and intensity of the magnetic field varied in a range of 0.6-1.4 m s(-1) and 5-20 mT, respectively. However, under the best conditions with the magnetic field treatment (0.9-1.2 m s(-1) and 20 mT plus solenoid), the overall volumetric ethanol productivity was approximately 17% higher than in the control experiment. These results made it possible to verify the effectiveness of the dynamic magnetic treatment since the fermentations with magnetic treatment reached their final stage in less time, i.e., approximately 2 h earlier, when compared with the control experiment.
This work aimed to study the partitioning of a lipase produced by Burkholderia cepacia in PEG/Phosphate aqueous two phase system (ATPS) and its characterization. Lipase was produced by B. cepacia strains in a fermenter. Enzyme partitioning occurred at pH 6.0 and 8.0, using PEG 1500 and 6000 on two tie lines. Metal ions, pH and temperature effects on enzyme activity were evaluated. Five milliliter of 7.5% olive oil emulsion with 2.5% gumarabic in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 and 37ºC were used for the activity determinations. Results showed that crude stratum from B. cepacia was partitioned by PEG1500/phosphate ATPS at pH 6.0 or 8.0 for, which the partitioning coefficients were 108-and 209-folds. Lipase presented optimal activity conditions at 37 o C and pH 8.0; it showed pH-stability for 4 h of incubation at different pH values at 37 o C. Metal ions such as Mn 2+ , Co 2+ , Iand Ca 2+ sustained enzymatic activities; however, it was inhibited by the presence of Fe 2+ , Hg 2+ and Al 3+. K m and V max values were 0.258 U/mg and 43.90 g/L, respectively. A molecular weight of 33 kDa and an isoelectric point at pH 5.0 were determined by SDS-PAGE and IFS electrophoresis, respectively.
A strategy of experimental design using a fractional factorial design (FFD) and a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) were carried out with the aim to obtain the best conditions of temperature (20-30 degrees C), agitation rate (100-300 rpm), initial pH (5.0-7.0), inoculum concentration (5-15%), and glucose concentration (30-70 g/l) for glutathione (GSH) production in shake-flask culture by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 7754. By a FFD (2(5-2)), the agitation rate, temperature, and pH were found to be significant factors for GSH production. In CCRD (2(2)) was obtained a second-order model equation, and the percent of variation explained by the model was 95%. The results showed that the optimal culture conditions were agitation rate, 300 rpm; temperature, 20 degrees C; initial pH, 5; glucose, 54 g/l; and inoculum concentration, 5%. The highest GSH concentration (154.5 mg/l) was obtained after 72 h of fermentation.
Among 22 species of microorganisms isolated from phenol-containing wastewaters, Candida parapsilopsis was found to be capable of growth on a medium with 1 g/L phenol. Kinetic parameters of phenol biodegradation in a batch reactor were determined by measuring biomass growth rates and phenol concentration as a function of fermentation time. The Haldane equation described cell growth adequately, with kinetic constants mumax = 0.174/h, KS = 11.2 mg/L and Ki = 298 mg/L.
Surface-active compounds of biological origin are widely used for many industries (cosmetic, food, petrochemical). The Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913 was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant on 5% (v/v) diesel-oil at pH 5.0 and 32 o C. The cell-free broth emulsified and stabilized the oil-in-water emulsion through a first order kinetics. The results showed that the initial pH value and temperature influenced the emulsifier stability (ES), which was the time when oil was separated. The biosurfactant presented different stabilization properties for vegetable and mineral oil in water solution, despite the highest values of the ES occurring with vegetable oil. The biosurfactantpresented smallest ES when compared to commercial surfactants; however, this biosurfactant was not purified.
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