Due to increasing electric vehicles (EVs) uptakes, power system distribution network will have to accommodate the increased load level for charging EVs. Thus, the importance of a robust power system especially in the distribution network level is indisputable. During the planning or reinforcement stage of distribution networks, it is paramount to have some estimations and analyses done on system-wide EV charging loads that will be placed in the network. Thus, this paper systematically investigates the EV fleet composition, market shares, and charging patterns within New Zealand (NZ) area. A multivariate probabilistic modelling of dependent random variables and cumulative distribution functions is adopted for the accurate estimation of aggregated EV charging demands. Several vehicle travel survey data sets are utilised to quantitatively determine charging behaviours and driving patterns of EVs. The developed methodology based on Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) is utilised to generate results close to the real use-cases daily power demand, which can be further utilised in the analysis of EV charging strategies. In addition, non-smart
Electric vehicles (EVs) are one of a prominent solution for the sustainability issues needing dire attention like global warming, depleting fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Conversely, EVs are shown to emit higher emissions (measured from source to tailpipe) for the fossil fuel-based countries, which necessitates renewable energy sources (RES) for maximizing EV benefits. EVs can also act as a storage system, to mitigate the challenges associated with RES and to provide the grid with ancillary services, such as voltage regulation, frequency regulation, spinning reserve, etc. For extracting maximum benefits from EVs and minimizing the associated impact on the distribution network, modelling optimal integration of EVs in the network is required. This paper focuses on reviewing the state-of-the-art literature on the modelling of grid-connected EV-PV (photovoltaics) system. Further, the paper evaluates the uncertainty modelling methods associated with various parameters related to the grid-connected EV-PV system. Finally, the review is concluded with a summary of potential research directions in this area. The paper presents an evaluation of different modelling components of grid-connected EV-PV system to facilitate readers in modelling such system for researching EV-PV integration in the distribution network.
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