This paper presents a novel approach to model the transfer function of electrical power lines for broadband power line communication. In this approach, the power line is approximated as a transmission line and the two intrinsic parameters, the characteristic impedance and the propagation constants, are derived based on the lumped-element circuit model. Using these intrinsic parameters, the transfer characteristics for a N-branch power distribution network are derived based on the scattering matrix method. Detail derivation of this line model is given in this paper. The model has been verified with practical measurements conducted on actual power networks. It is demonstrated that the model accurately determine the line characteristics under different network configuration and when different household appliances are connected. Index Terms-Channel modeling, communication channel, power line communications.
New Zealand's (NZ) thirst for hydrocarbon-based fuels for transportation is rising exponentially, resulting in two severe consequences: first, severe emissions of greenhouse gases and a range of pollutants, and second, the dependence on foreign petroleum imports to provide those fuels. Thus there is a stimulus to develop, and to utilise, energy systems that are reliable and sustainable. The implementation of the hydrogen-based fuel cell (FC) system for electric vehicles (EVs) appears to be a promising solution because the FC is now established as a reliable, non-polluting energy source, having a high power density that competes favourably with the conventional internal combustion (IC) engine and the battery vehicle. This study provides a comprehensive review of the proton exchange membrane (PEM)-based FC, and assesses its potential in FC vehicles as an alternative to internal-combustion-based vehicles for NZ cities. The study indicates a need for FCs to penetrate the automotive market, plus key government and business strategies for the introduction of PEM EVs.
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