"A Roadmap to Tackle the Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance - A Joint meeting of Medical Societies in India" was organized as a pre-conference symposium of the 2 nd annual conference of the Clinical Infectious Disease Society (CIDSCON 2012) at Chennai on 24 th August. This was the first ever meeting of medical societies in India on issue of tackling resistance, with a plan to formulate a road map to tackle the global challenge of antimicrobial resistance from the Indian perspective. We had representatives from most medical societies in India, eminent policy makers from both central and state governments, representatives of World Health Organization, National Accreditation Board of Hospitals, Medical Council of India, Drug Controller General of India, and Indian Council of Medical Research along with well-known dignitaries in the Indian medical field. The meeting was attended by a large gathering of health care professionals. The meeting consisted of plenary and interactive discussion sessions designed to seek experience and views from a large range of health care professionals and included six international experts who shared action plans in their respective regions. The intention was to gain a broad consensus and range of opinions to guide formation of the road map. The ethos of the meeting was very much not to look back but rather to look forward and make joint efforts to tackle the menace of antibiotic resistance. The Chennai Declaration will be submitted to all stake holders.
Background and aims
: COVID-19 is a multi-system disease, with coagulation abnormalities. D-dimer levels are increased in this disease. We aimed to determine the association of D-dimer levels and mortality and to establish its optimal cut off values in predicting mortality. Association of D-dimer levels with Diabetes Mellitus has also been established.
: Information on 483 patients with confirmed COVID-19 was retrospectively collected and analyzed. The optimal D-dimer cutoff point and C-statistic of routine tests both on admission and during hospital stay were evaluated by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve.
: The D-dimer elevation (≥0.50 μg/mL) was seen in 80.1% of the hospitalized patients. D-dimer level ≥2.01 μg/mL was a significant predictor of subsequent deaths (
< 0.01; HR, 3.165; 95% CI, 2.013–4.977). The high D-dimer values (≥0.50 μg/mL) were observed in 72 of the 75 (96%) cases with a fatal outcome. Median D-dimer values among non-survivors was 6.34 μg/mL and among survivors it was 0.94 μg/mL. A higher proportion of fatal outcomes occurred in patients with underlying disease (89.0%), most prominent of which was Diabetes Mellitus (66%). The median D-dimer value was found to be significantly high in Diabetic patients (1.68 μg/mL).
: Among the measured coagulation parameters, D-dimer during hospital stay had the highest C-index to predict in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. D-dimer value ≥ 2.01 μg/mL can effectively predict in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. A significant association of increased D-dimer level has been found with Diabetes Mellitus and elderly age.
Background:As the use of colistin to treat carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections increases, colistin resistance is being increasingly reported in Indian hospitals.Materials and Methods:Retrospective chart review of clinical data from patients with colistin-resistant isolates (minimum inhibitory concentration >2 mcg/ml). Clinical profile, outcome, and antibiotics that were used for treatment were analyzed.Results:Twenty-four colistin-resistant isolates were reported over 18 months (January 2014-June 2015). A history of previous hospitalization within 3 months was present in all the patients. An invasive device was used in 22 (91.67%) patients. Urine was the most common source of the isolate, followed by blood and respiratory samples. Klebsiella pneumoniae constituted 87.5% of all isolates. Sixteen (66.6%) were considered to have true infection, whereas eight (33.3%) were considered to represent colonization. Susceptibility of these isolates to other drugs tested was tigecycline in 75%, chloramphenicol 62.5%, amikacin 29.17%, co-trimoxazole 12.5%, and fosfomycin (sensitive in all 4 isolates tested). Antibiotics that were used for treatment were combinations among the following antimicrobials-tigecycline, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, and sulbactam. Among eight patients who were considered to have colonization, there were no deaths. Bacteremic patients had a significantly higher risk of death compared to all nonbacteremic patients (P = 0.014).Conclusions:Colistin resistance among Gram-negative bacteria, especially K. pneumoniae, is emerging in Indian hospitals. At least one-third of isolates represented colonization only rather than true infection and did not require treatment. Among patients with true infection, only 25% had a satisfactory outcome and survived to discharge. Fosfomycin, tigecycline, and chloramphenicol may be options for combination therapy.
Probiotics are increasingly used in critically ill patients without enough safety data. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of probiotics with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungaemia. Seven patients with S. cerevisiae fungaemia were reported at two hospitals in India between July 2014 and September 2015. Detailed clinical history of patients was recorded. Besides the seven patient isolates, three probiotics sachets used in those patients and five unrelated clinical isolates were used for association study by Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution technique of CLSI (M27-A3) and interpreted according to CLSI (M27S4). Two patients were premature neonates and five were adults. They were admitted in intensive care unit and were on probiotics containing S. boulardii (except one adult patient). FAFLP analysis showed 96.4-99.7% similarity between blood and corresponding probiotic isolates. Of the three AFLP types (group I, II, II) identified, all the probiotic isolates clustered in group I (major cluster) including majority of the blood isolates. The isolates were susceptible to all antifungal agents tested. Five patients, who could be evaluated, responded promptly to echinocandins or voriconazole. As the prescription of probiotic containing S. boulardii in critically ill patient's leads to the fungaemia, we recommend avoiding this probiotic in those patients.
There was a progressive increase in antimicrobial resistance in isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolated from blood cultures. ESBL production was seen in the majority of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae and E. coli is increasing rapidly. Resistance to even tigecycline and polymyxin E, antibiotics of last resort, has begun to emerge. There is an urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship and other measures to limit worsening of Gram-negative resistance in India.
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