Recent observations demonstrated that translation of mRNAs may occur in axonal processes at sites that are long distances away from the neuronal perikaria. While axonal protein synthesis has been documented in several studies, the mechanism of its regulation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RNA interference (RNAi) may be one of the pathways that control local protein synthesis in axons. Here we show that sciatic nerve contains Argonaute2 nuclease, fragile X mental retardation protein, p100 nuclease, and Gemin3 helicase-components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Application of short-interfering RNAs against neuronal beta-tubulin to the sciatic nerve initiated RISC formation, causing a decrease in levels of neuronal beta-tubulin III mRNA and corresponding protein, as well as a significant reduction in retrograde labeling of lumbar motor neurons. Our observations indicate that RNAi is functional in peripheral mammalian axons and is independent from the neuronal cell body or Schwann cells. We introduce a concept of local regulation of axonal translation via RNAi.
Study design: Experimental study. Objective: To evaluate the treatment of spinal cord injury with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) delivered using an adenoviral vector (AdV-GDNF group) in comparison with treatment performed using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCB-MCs)-transduced with an adenoviral vector carrying the GDNF gene (UCB-MCs+AdV-GDNF group) in rat. Setting: Kazan, Russian Federation. Methods: We examined the efficacy of AdV-GDNF and UCB-MCs+AdV-GDNF therapy by conducting behavioral tests on the animals and morphometric studies on the spinal cord, performing immunofluorescence analyses on glial cells, investigating the survival and migration potential of UCB-MCs, and evaluating the expression of the recombinant GDNF gene. Results: At the 30th postoperative day, equal positive locomotor recovery was observed after both direct and cell-based GDNF therapy. However, after UCB-MCs-mediated GDNF therapy, the area of preserved tissue and the number of spared myelinated fibers were higher than those measured after direct GDNF gene therapy. Moreover, we observed distinct changes in the populations of glial cells; expression patterns of the specific markers for astrocytes (GFAP, S100B and AQP4), oligodendrocytes (PDGFαR and Cx47) and Schwann cells (P0) differed in various areas of the spinal cord of rats treated with AdV-GDNF and UCB-MCs+AdV-GDNF. Conclusion: The differences detected in the AdV-GDNF and UCB-MCs+AdV-GDNF groups could be partially explained by the action of UCB-MCs. We discuss the insufficiency and the advantages of these two methods of GDNF gene delivery into the spinal cord after traumatic injury. INTRODUCTIONSpinal cord injury (SCI) leads to complex pathological changes that include the death of neurons and glial cells and the demyelination and degeneration of nerve fibers. The limited growth capacity of mature central nervous system (CNS) neurons and the non-permissive environment of the CNS for axon regrowth are the main factors responsible for the little or no regeneration toward targets displayed by injured axons and for the permanent functional deficit observed after SCI. One promising approach for preventing neurodegeneration involves locally treating the site of injury in order to increase the expression of neurotrophic factors. Exploiting the stimulatory effects of neurotrophic factors on neuroregeneration appears to also be useful for SCI treatment, and one neurotrophic factor that is particularly suitable for SCI treatment is glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). GDNF is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that binds to the receptor GFRα1 and upregulates several signaling pathways; these pathways include those involving intracellular RAS/extracellular signalregulated kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT, p38 mitogen-
Inspired by recent work of Islamov et al (2021), we propose a family of Federated Newton Learn (FedNL) methods, which we believe is a marked step in the direction of making second-order methods applicable to FL. In contrast to the aforementioned work, FedNL employs a different Hessian learning technique which i) enhances privacy as it does not rely on the training data to be revealed to the coordinating server, ii) makes it applicable beyond generalized linear models, and iii) provably works with general contractive compression operators for compressing the local Hessians, such as Top-K or Rank-R, which are vastly superior in practice. Notably, we do not need to rely on error feedback for our methods to work with contractive compressors.Moreover, we develop FedNL-PP, FedNL-CR and FedNL-LS, which are variants of FedNL that support partial participation, and globalization via cubic regularization and line search, respectively, and FedNL-BC, which is a variant that can further benefit from bidirectional compression of gradients and models, i.e., smart uplink gradient and smart downlink model compression.We prove local convergence rates that are independent of the condition number, the number of training data points, and compression variance. Our communication efficient Hessian learning technique provably learns the Hessian at the optimum.Finally, we perform a variety of numerical experiments that show that our FedNL methods have state-of-the-art communication complexity when compared to key baselines.
Stem cell based therapies for cerebral ischemia (CI) utilize different cell sources including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and some immortalized cell lines. To date, experimental studies showed that all of these cell sources have been successful to some extent in attenuating the ischemic damage and improving functional recovery after brain injury. Bone marrow derived MSCs seem to be the most widely used and well characterized cell source, which can be also employed for autologous transplantation. Currently, there are two main theories behind the therapeutic effect of stem cell transplantation for treating CIs. The first concept is cell replacement theory in which transplanted stem cells differentiate into progenitor and specialized somatic cells to supersede dying cells. The other hypothesis is based on immuno-modulatory, neuro-protective and neuro-trophic abilities of stem cells which help reducing stroke size and increasing the recovery of behavioral functions. Recent studies focusing on alternative stem cell sources have revealed that dental stem cells (DSCs), including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and dental follicle cells (DFCs) possess properties of MSCs and NSCs. They differentiate into neural linage cells and some other cell types such as osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, muscle cells and hepatocytes. This review is intended to examine stem cell therapy approaches for CI and emphasize potential use of DSCs as an alternative cell source for the treatment of brain ischemia.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable, chronic, fatal neuro-degenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of moto-neurons and paralysis of skeletal muscles. Reactivating dysfunctional areas is under earnest investigation utilizing various approaches. Here we present an innovative gene-cell construct aimed at reviving inert structure and function. Human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCBCs) transduced with adeno-viral vectors encoding human VEGF, GDNF and/or NCAM genes were transplanted into transgenic ALS mice models. Significant improvement in behavioral performance (open-field and grip-strength tests), as well as increased life-span was observed in rodents treated with NCAM-VEGF or NCAM-GDNF co-transfected cells. Active trans-gene expression was found in the spinal cord of ALS mice 10 weeks after delivering genetically modified hUCBCs, and cells were detectable even 5 months following transplantation. Our gene-cell therapy model yielded prominent symptomatic control and prolonged life-time in ALS. Incredible survivability of xeno-transpanted cells was also observed without any immune-suppression. These results suggest that engineered hUCBCs may offer effective gene-cell therapy in ALS.
Current therapy of a number of neuropsychiatric maladies has only symptomatic modality. Effective treatment of these neuro-degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), may benefit from combined gene/stem-cell approaches. In this report, mononuclear fraction of human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCBCs) were transfected by electroporation with dual plasmid constructs, simultaneously expressing vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) and human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF(2)) (pBud-VEGF-FGF(2)). These genetically modified hUCBCs were injected retro-orbitally into presymptomatic ALS transgenic animal models ((G)93(A) mice). Lumbar spinal cords of rodents were processed for immunofluoresent staining with antibodies against human nuclear antigen (HNA), oligodendrocyte-specific protein, S100, iba1, neuronal β(3)-tubulin and CD34. Co-localization of HNA and S100 was found in the spinal cord of mice after transplantation of genetically modified hUCBCs over-expressing VEGF-FGF(2). Double staining in control animals treated with unmodified hUCBCs, however, revealed HNA+ cells expressing iba1 and CD34. Neuron-specific β(3)-tubulin or oligodendrocyte-specific protein were not expressed in hUCBCs in either control or experimental mice. These results demonstrate that genetically naïve hUCBCs may differentiate into endothelial (CD34+) and microglial (iba1+) cells; however when over-expressing VEGF-FGF(2), hUCBCs transform into astrocytes (S100+). Autocrine regulation of VEGF and FGF(2) on hUCBCs, signal molecules from dying motor neurons in spinal cord, as well as self-differentiating potential may provide a unique microenvironment for the transformation of hUCBCs into astrocytes that eventually serve as a source of growth factors to enhance the survive potential of surrounding cells in the diseased regions.
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