Inflammatory response is a kind of nonspecific immune response, with the central link of vascular response, which is mainly manifested by changes in neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells. In recent years, the in vivo and in vitro role of intravenous anesthetic propofol in inhibiting inflammatory response has been attracting more and more attention, but the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of propofol for mononuclear cells still remain undefined. In this study, proteomics analysis was applied to investigate protein expression profile changes in serum mononuclear cells following intervention of rats with endotoxemia using propofol. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric identification, it has been found that the protein Annexin A1 was up-regulated in the propofol intervention group. Annexin A1 is a glucocorticoid-dependent anti-inflammatory protein. After detection using ELISA and Western blot assays, it has also been found that propofol can not only promote the expression of Annexin A1, but also inhibit the phosphorylation level of p38 and release of inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in rats with endotoxemia. In order to further determine the role of up-regulated expression of Annexin A1 in anti-inflammation of propofol, this gene was silenced in vitro in human THP-1 cells, to detect the phosphorylation status of p38 and release of inflammatory factors. The results show that Annexin A1 can negatively regulate phosphorylation of p38 and release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 cells following propofol intervention and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results clearly indicate that propofol can up-regulate Annexin A1 to inhibit the phosphorylation level of p38 and release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, so as to inhibit inflammatory response. Therefore, it can be speculated that Annexin A1 might be the key signaling protein in the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory mechanisms of propofol.
Perioperative bleeding during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an ongoing problem for surgeons. Intravenous or topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA) can effectively stop bleeding, but there is still no uniform standard for the best method of administration and dose.
From October 2016 to September 2018, 218 patients with unilateral primary knee osteoarthritis requiring knee replacement were enrolled and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 (n = 55) received intra-articular injection (IAI) of TXA and peri-articular injection (PAI) of placebo, group 2 (n = 55) received IAI of placebo and PAI of TXA, group 3 (n = 51) received IAI of TXA and PAI of TXA, and group 4 (n = 57) received double placebo (IAI of placebo and PAI of placebo). The demographic characteristics, surgical indices, hematological indices, wound healing history, and thromboembolic events were investigated.
Eight patients were lost to follow-up and 210 patients were included in the analysis. The median TBLs in patients who received IAI of TXA and PAI of placebo and those who received IAI of placebo and PAI of TXA were 470.81 ml and 481.54 ml, respectively. These TBL levels were significantly higher compared to those in patients who received IAI of TXA and PAI of TXA (359.18 ml,
≤ .001), but significantly lower compared to those in patients who received the double placebo (522.71 ml,
≤ .001). Compared to other groups, more patients in the double placebo group needed a blood transfusion (
= .013). In the short-term, the double placebo group had higher VAS pain scores and less ROM after surgery (
= .011 and
= .001, respectively). In the long-term (6-month follow-up), there were no significant differences in ROM, VAS, DVT, PE, or wound-related complications.
The combined use of IAI and PAI of TXA can significantly reduce the TBL and the need for blood transfusion without delaying wound healing or increasing the risk of DVT and PE. In the short-term after surgery, this combined method reduces the pain VAS scores and improves the ROM; however, there are no long-term effects on VAS and ROM.
Alendronate treatment in this study decreased fusion mass remodeling without inhibiting fusion rate. Increased amounts of autologous bone graft could improve the fusion rate in this experimental spine fusion study.
The osteoporotic hip and vertebral fractures caused excess mortality rates in this population of Mainland China. The current diagnosis and medical treatment following the fragility fractures is still insufficient in Mainland China.
Compared with Western populations, Chinese patients had a higher rate of fever and pain after their first zoledronic acid infusion. These symptoms were often mild to moderate in intensity and transient in duration. NSAID could effectively reduce the incidence and severity of such APR.
To evaluate the application, safety and efficacy of the patients treated with intramedullary nailing (IMN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in distal tibia fractures. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched databases PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE and Web of Science from inception of the database up to 10 October 2018, using the keywords “distal tibia fractures”, “plate”, “intramedullary nailing” and “RCT” to identify randomized clinical trials about distal tibia fractures. The included studies were assessed by two researchers according to the Cochrane risk‐of‐bias criteria. The primary outcome of measurement included operation time, malunion rate, nonunion/delayed union rate, and wound complication. Data analysis was conducted with Review Manager 5.3 software. A total of 10 RCTs involving 911 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria with 455 patients in the IMN group and 456 patients in the MIPO group. There were no significant differences in radiation time, nonunion or delayed union rate, union time and operation time between the two groups. Patients treated with MIPO had lower incidence of malunion compared with IMN (RR = 1.85, 95%CI: 1.21 to 2.83, P = 1.00), while IMN seemed to have lower surgical incision complications whether in closed or opening fractures (RR = 0.49, 95%CI 0.33 to 0.73, P = 0.43). But in patients classified as 43A, the result of subgroup analysis suggested that there was no significant inwound complication between the two groups. MIPO was superior in preventing malunion compared with IMN, and intramedullary nailing appeared to have lower wound complications. However, in patients with 43A distal tibial fractures, MIPO was more recommended for its prevention of malunion. No matter which method we choose, we should notice and prevent the associated complications.
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