Differences in incidence rates among various breeds suggested a genetic involvement. Knowledge of the distribution of IVD degeneration-related diseases among dogs of various breeds and ages may facilitate early diagnosis and preemptive treatments in patients at risk for developing these diseases.
Summary There is a high prevalence of lameness among Standardbred trotters, most commonly caused by noninfectious joint diseases, mainly related to training and competition. In this context, impact‐related shock waves transmitted through the skeleton and joints have been proposed to be one important factor in the development of osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic pattern of the events immediately following first contact, with a focus on the in vivo transmission of impact shock waves in the distal forelimb. Two horses were trotted by hand over a force plate. Recordings of 3‐D kinematics of the distal forelimb were carried out by use of a 240 Hz video system. Tri‐axial accelerometer data were collected from a bone‐mounted accelerometer on the midlateral side of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) and from another accelerometer attached to the lateral side of the hoof. Force plate and accelerometer data were sampled at 4.8 kHz using a 16‐bit A/D‐converter, synchronised with the kinematic data. The results indicate that the time lapse of the horizontal retardation of the hoof is an important factor in the attenuation of the impact. A shorter period of hoof braking showed higher amplitudes in the longitudinal retardation of McIII and a more rapid oscillation. This makes all parameters that affect the horizontal hoof braking potentially important to the orthopaedic health of the horse.
The objective of the present study was to compare the hoof deceleration and ground reaction forces following impact on two different surfaces. Seven unshod Standardbreds were trotted by hand at 3.0-5.7 m s 21 over a force plate covered by either of the two surfaces, sandpaper or a 1 cm layer of sand. Impact deceleration data were recorded from one triaxial accelerometer mounted on the fore-and hind hooves, respectively. Ground reaction force data were obtained synchronously from a force plate, sampled at 4.8 kHz. The differences between the two surfaces were studied by analysing representative deceleration and force variables for individual horses. The maximum horizontal peak deceleration and the loading rates of the vertical and the horizontal forces were significantly higher on sandpaper compared with the sand surface (P , 0.001). In addition, the initial vertical deceleration was significantly higher on sandpaper in the forelimb (P , 0.001). In conclusion, it was shown that the different qualities of the ground surface result in differences in the hoof-braking pattern, which may be of great importance for the strength of the distal horse limb also at slow speeds.
Summary Reasons for performing study: The transmission of shockwaves following hoof impact is proposed to be one major source of stress to the limb. In the forelimb, there are indications that the period of horizontal deceleration of the hoof is related to the attenuation of shockwaves. In the hindlimb, information about the hoof deceleration has been lacking. Objective: To compare hoof deceleration patterns between the fore‐ and hindlimbs. Methods: Seven Standardbreds were trotted by hand over a force plate covered with sand, with triaxial accelerometers mounted on the fore and hind hooves. Variables representative of decelerations (first 2 main vertical deceleration peaks; characteristic minimum and maximum values in the craniocaudal deceleration; hoof braking time) and ground reaction forces (vertical loading rates; maximum and the following local minimum of the craniocaudal force) of the initial part of the stance phase, and the differences between individual fore‐ and hindlimb time and amplitude variables were used for statistical analyses. Results: Force plate data showed significantly greater vertical loading rate (mean ± s.d. 6.5 ± 5.9 N/sec) and horizontal loads (190.4 ± 110.2 N) in the forelimb than the hindlimb, but the parameters from accelerometer data showed no significant differences. Conclusions: No significant difference was found in the hoof deceleration, but the deceleration curves displayed a common pattern that described in detail the kinematics of the fore and hind hooves during the initial period of hoof braking. Potential relevance: These results contribute to further knowledge about the characteristics of these potential risk factors in the development of subchondral bone damage in the horse. Further studies are required on the influence of hoof braking pattern at higher speed, different shoeing and ground surfaces with different properties.
Background: Periodontal disease remains one of the dog's most common health issues, even though it is largely preventable by tooth brushing. Implementation of daily tooth brushing would not only improve animal welfare, but also reduce veterinary costs for the owner. There is a paucity of studies investigating attitudes, opinions and practices of dog owners, veterinarians, and veterinary nurses regarding preventative dental home care in dogs. The objective of this study was to investigate these parameters in Sweden, thereby providing a basis for improved prophylactic strategies. Methods: Validated questionnaire surveys were distributed to all Swedish dog owners (n = 209,263), veterinarians (n = 3657) and veterinary nurses (n = 1650) with e-mail addresses in the national registry. The response rates were 32% for dog owners and veterinarians, and 38% for veterinary nurses. The survey questions concerned attitudes, opinions and practices regarding dental home care, including whether dog owners received information concerning dental home care or not, and if this information resulted in implementation. Results: Attitudes, opinions and practices regarding dental home care are presented for Swedish dog owners, veterinarians, and veterinary nurses. A fundamental finding was that the absolute majority of Swedish dog owners do not perform adequate prophylactic dental home care. Considerable discrepancies were identified in the opinions of veterinary health practitioners and dog owners regarding attitudes towards dental home care and conveying of information. Several areas for improvement in the communication between dog owners and veterinary health practitioners concerning dental home care were identified. Conclusion: Our results illustrates the need for validated methods to increase dog owner compliance with dental home care recommendations. We also see a need of further education, regarding canine dental home care, among veterinarians, veterinary nurses, and dog owners. The results from this unique study constitute an important foundation for future development of prophylactic strategies, with the ultimate goal to improve dental health, and thereby animal welfare, in dogs.
BackgroundDental disease is one of the most common health problems in dogs. However, no studies have investigated the attitudes, opinions and practices of dog owners, veterinarians and veterinary nurses regarding dental health and preventative dental home care in dogs. The objective of this study was therefore to develop and validate questionnaires for this purpose, in accordance with survey methodology guidelines.MethodsQuestionnaire items were determined based on the authors’ academic knowledge and clinical experience, and modified throughout the validation process. Several measures were taken to reduce sampling, coverage, measurement and non-response errors. Content validity was assessed by Subject-Matter Experts (SME) and cognitive interviews were conducted in accordance with the “think-aloud protocol”. Non-response analysis was performed using several methods.ResultsConstructs were identified using exploratory factor analysis and two predefined constructs from the dog owner questionnaire were confirmed “Dog owners’ attitudes towards brushing their dog’s teeth” (Cronbach’s α = 0.86) and “Dog owners’ assessment of their dog’s dental health” (α = 0.76). Additionally, exploratory factor analysis identified three potential constructs. In the veterinary health practitioner questionnaire, two constructs were identified: “Veterinary health practitioners’ attitudes towards dental chews and dental feed” (α = 0.78) and “Veterinary health practitioners’ attitudes and opinions on dental problems and dental cleaning” (α = 0.73). Non-response analysis showed a higher proportion of women in the sample of dog owners and veterinarians compared to the target populations. Veterinarians in the sample were also younger. In contrast, gender and age distributions in veterinary nurses did not differ between sample and target.ConclusionThe validation presented in this work showed that the developed questionnaires could be used as accurate and reliable tools for measuring attitudes and practices regarding dental home care in dogs among Swedish dog owners, veterinarians and veterinary nurses.
Analysis of the motion of skeletal structures with the use of markers attached to the skin showed that the skin moves relative to underlying skeletal structures. When working with a 3-D motion-capture system using skin markers, researchers should be aware that the STA could significantly influence their results.
BackgroundTo evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA.ResultsTwenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach’s α. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach’s α was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function.ConclusionsThe results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13028-017-0311-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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