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Turbulent boundary layers under adverse pressure gradients are studied using well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) with the goal of assessing the influence of the streamwise pressure-gradient development. Near-equilibrium boundary layers were characterized through the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$. In order to fulfil the near-equilibrium conditions, the free stream velocity was prescribed such that it followed a power-law distribution. The turbulence statistics pertaining to cases with a constant value of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ (extending up to approximately 40 boundary-layer thicknesses) were compared with cases with non-constant $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ distributions at matched values of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ and friction Reynolds number $Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}$. An additional case at matched Reynolds number based on displacement thickness $Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FF}^{\ast }}$ was also considered. It was noticed that non-constant $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ cases appear to approach the conditions of equivalent constant $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ cases after long streamwise distances (approximately 7 boundary-layer thicknesses). The relevance of the constant $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ cases lies in the fact that they define a ‘canonical’ state of the boundary layer, uniquely characterized by $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ and $Re$. The investigations on the flat plate were extended to the flow around a wing section overlapping in terms of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ and $Re$. Comparisons with the flat-plate cases at matched values of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ and $Re$ revealed that the different development history of the turbulent boundary layer on the wing section leads to a less pronounced wake in the mean velocity as well as a weaker second peak in the Reynolds stresses. This is due to the weaker accumulated effect of the $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}$ history. Furthermore, a scaling law suggested by Kitsios et al. (Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 61, 2016, pp. 129–136), proposing the edge velocity and the displacement thickness as scaling parameters, was tested on two constant-pressure-gradient parameter cases. The mean velocity and Reynolds-stress profiles were found to be dependent on the downstream development. The present work is the first step towards assessing history effects in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers and highlights the fact that the values of the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter and the Reynolds number are not sufficient to characterize the state of the boundary layer.

Rare negative streamwise velocities and extreme wall-normal velocity fluctuations near the wall are investigated for turbulent channel flow at a series of Reynolds numbers based on friction velocity up to Re τ = 1000. Probability density functions of the wall-shear stress and velocity components are presented as well as joint probability density functions of the velocity components and the pressure. Backflow occurs more often (0.06% at the wall at Re τ = 1000) and further away (up to y + = 8.5) from the wall for increasing Reynolds number. The regions of backflow are circular with an average diameter, based on ensemble averages, of approximately 20 viscous units independent of Reynolds number. A strong oblique vortex outside the viscous sublayer is found to cause this backflow. Extreme wall-normal velocity events occur also more often for increasing Reynolds number. These extreme fluctuations cause high flatness values near the wall (F(v) = 43 at Re τ = 1000). Positive and negative velocity spikes appear in pairs, located on the two edges of a strong streamwise vortex as documented by Xu et al. [Phys. Fluids 8, 1938 (1996)] for Re τ = 180. The spikes are elliptical and orientated in streamwise direction with a typical length of 25 and a typical width of 7.5 viscous units at y + ≈ 1. The negative spike occurs in a high-speed streak indicating a sweeping motion, while the positive spike is located in between a high and low-speed streak. The joint probability density functions of negative streamwise and extreme wall-normal velocity events show that these events are largely uncorrelated. The majority of both type of events can be found lying underneath a large-scale structure in the outer region with positive sign, which can be understood by considering the more intense velocity fluctuations due to amplitude modulation of the inner layer by the outer layer. Simulations performed at different resolutions give only minor differences. Results from experiments and recent turbulent boundary layer simulations show similar results indicating that these rare events are universal for wall-bounded flows. In order to detect these rare events in experiments, measurement techniques have to be specifically tuned.

Localized structures such as turbulent stripes and turbulent spots are typical features of transitional wall-bounded flows in the subcritical regime. Based on an assumption for scale separation between large and small scales, we show analytically that the corresponding laminar-turbulent interfaces are always oblique with respect to the mean direction of the flow. In the case of plane Couette flow, the mismatch between the streamwise flow rates near the boundaries of the turbulence patch generates a large-scale flow with a nonzero spanwise component. Advection of the small-scale turbulent fluctuations (streaks) by the corresponding large-scale flow distorts the shape of the turbulence patch and is responsible for its oblique growth. This mechanism can be easily extended to other subcritical flows such as plane Poiseuille flow or Taylor-Couette flow.

A recent assessment of available direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from turbulent boundary layer flows (Schlatter &Örlü, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 659, 2010, pp. 116-126) showed surprisingly large differences not only in the skin friction coefficient or shape factor, but also in their predictions of mean and fluctuation profiles far into the sublayer. While such differences are expected at very low Reynolds numbers and/or the immediate vicinity of the inflow or tripping region, it remains unclear whether inflow and tripping effects explain the differences observed even at moderate Reynolds numbers. This question is systematically addressed by re-simulating the DNS of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flow by Schlatter et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 21, 2009, art. 051702). The previous DNS serves as the baseline simulation, and the new DNS with a range of physically different inflow conditions and tripping effects are carefully compared. The downstream evolution of integral quantities as well as mean and fluctuation profiles is analysed, and the results show that different inflow conditions and tripping effects do indeed explain most of the differences observed when comparing available DNS at low Reynolds number. It is further found that, if transition is initiated inside the boundary layer at a low enough Reynolds number (based on the momentum-loss thickness) Re θ < 300, all quantities agree well for both inner and outer layer for Re θ > 2000. This result gives a lower limit for meaningful comparisons between numerical and/or wind tunnel experiments, assuming that the flow was not severely over-or understimulated. It is further shown that even profiles of the wall-normal velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stress collapse for higher Re θ irrespective of the upstream conditions. In addition, the overshoot in the total shear stress within the sublayer observed in the DNS of Wu & Moin (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, art. 085105) has been identified as a feature of transitional boundary layers.

We study the two main phenomenologies associated with the transport of inertial particles in turbulent flows, turbophoresis and small-scale clustering. Turbophoresis describes the turbulence-induced wall accumulation of particles dispersed in wall turbulence, while small-scale clustering is a form of local segregation that affects the particle distribution in the presence of fine-scale turbulence. Despite the fact that the two aspects are usually addressed separately, this paper shows that they occur simultaneously in wall-bounded flows, where they represent different aspects of the same process. We study these phenomena by post-processing data from a direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with different populations of inertial particles. It is shown that artificial domain truncation can easily alter the mean particle concentration profile, unless the domain is large enough to exclude possible correlation of the turbulence and the near-wall particle aggregates. The data show a strong link between accumulation level and clustering intensity in the near-wall region. At statistical steady state, most accumulating particles aggregate in strongly directional and almost filamentary structures, as found by considering suitable two-point observables able to extract clustering intensity and anisotropy. The analysis provides quantitative indications of the wall-segregation process as a function of the particle inertia. It is shown that, although the most wall-accumulating particles are too heavy to segregate in homogeneous turbulence, they exhibit the most intense local small-scale clustering near the wall as measured by the singularity exponent of the particle pair correlation function

In the present work we assess the capabilities of neural networks to predict temporally evolving turbulent flows. In particular, we use the nine-equation shear flow model by Moehlis et al. [New J. Phys. 6, 56 (2004)] to generate training data for two types of neural networks: the multilayer perceptron (MLP) and the long short-term memory (LSTM) network. We tested a number of neural network architectures by varying the number of layers, number of units per layer, dimension of the input, weight initialization and activation functions in order to obtain the best configurations for flow prediction. Due to its ability to exploit the sequential nature of the data, the LSTM network outperformed the MLP. The LSTM led to excellent predictions of turbulence statistics (with relative errors of 0.45% and 2.49% in mean and fluctuating quantities, respectively) and of the dynamical behavior of the system (characterized by Poincaré maps and Lyapunov exponents). This is an exploratory study where we consider a low-order representation of near-wall turbulence. Based on the present results, the proposed machine-learning framework may underpin future applications aimed at developing accurate and efficient data-driven subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulations of more complex wall-bounded turbulent flows, including channels and developing boundary layers.

Direct numerical simulations of subcritical rotating, stratified and magneto-hydrodynamic wall-bounded flows are performed in large computational domains, focusing on parameters where laminar and turbulent flow can stably coexist. In most cases, a regime of large-scale oblique laminar-turbulent patterns is identified at the onset of transition, as in the case of pure shear flows. The current study indicates that this oblique regime can be shifted up to large values of the Reynolds number $\mathit{Re}$ by increasing the damping by the Coriolis, buoyancy or Lorentz force. We show evidence for this phenomenon in three distinct flow cases: plane Couette flow with spanwise cyclonic rotation, plane magnetohydrodynamic channel flow with a spanwise or wall-normal magnetic field, and open channel flow under stable stratification. Near-wall turbulence structures inside the turbulent patterns are invariably found to scale in terms of viscous wall units as in the fully turbulent case, while the patterns themselves remain large-scale with a trend towards shorter wavelength for increasing $\mathit{Re}$. Two distinct regimes are identified: at low Reynolds numbers the patterns extend from one wall to the other, while at large Reynolds number they are confined to the near-wall regions and the patterns on both channel sides are uncorrelated, the core of the flow being highly turbulent without any dominant large-scale structure.

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