This study analyzes 3,181 deaths from paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil, based on 16 years of sequential data (from 1980 to 1995). During this period paracoccidioidomycosis showed considerable magnitude and low visibility, representing the eighth most common cause of death from predominantly chronic or recurrent types of infectious and parasitic diseases. It also had the highest mortality rate among the systemic mycoses. The mean annual mortality rate was 1.45 per million inhabitants, indicating a downward long-term trend (reduction of 31.28%), while spatial distribution among the different regions and States of Brazil was non-homogenous. The South (with the highest regional rate) and the Southeast showed a downward trend, while the Central West had the second highest rate in the country. At least one-fifth of Brazilian municipalities (or 22.71% of the country's total area) reported deaths from paracoccidioidomycosis. Overall nationwide mortality per area was 3.73/10,000km2. The disease was endemic in non-metropolitan areas. The majority of deaths occurred in males (84.75%), and there was a sex ratio of 562 men/100 women. The 30-59-year and over-60-year age groups were the most affected. The study showed that the mortality rate justifies classifying this disease as a major health problem in Brazil.
Dengue fever has become the most important vector-borne viral disease in Brazil. Human facilitated transport of desiccation-resistant eggs has led to its two most important vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, becoming widespread. In this paper, we report seasonal and spatial variation in larval abundances of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus across a small-scale transition zone between an urban area and an urban wooded/forested area within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We installed 400 ovitraps across 10 sites with different human population densities and vegetation coverage. Eggs and larvae were collected for three weeks during the wet and dry seasons of 2002 and 2003. Ae. albopictus was predominantly found in the forested areas of the study site whereas in the urbanized area Ae. aegypti was more abundant. Both species peaked during the wet season. This distribution pattern, which may reflect adult flight range, may favor the co-occurrence of larvae of these species in a small-scale urban/urban forest transition zone.
ResumoO espaço é uma categoria de síntese e convergência onde se expressam os diversos processos envolvidos nas condições de vida, ambiente e saúde das populações. Ao longo desses processos, os resultados obtidos pela análise de indicadores são sensíveis à seleção desses indicadores, das fontes de informação, da escala de análise, de unidades espaciais de referência e dos métodos de análise espacial. O objetivo deste trabalho é levantar o papel da análise espacial na avaliação das situações de saúde, que engloba a descrição de perfis epidemiológicos, de qualidade de vida e de condições ambientais. Conhecer a estrutura e a dinâmica espacial da população é o primeiro passo para a caracterização de situações de saúde. Além disso, permite o planejamento de ações de controle e alocação de recursos. A análise espacial propicia o restabelecimento do contexto no qual um evento de saúde ocorre, contribuindo para o entendimento dos processos socioambientais envolvidos.
Forty dogs from the periphery of the city of Rio de Janeiro were studied. All dogs where diagnosed as positive for leishmaniasis either parasitologically and/or serologically. Among them, 19 came from areas where only Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) occurs (Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará). Clinical signs of the disease were seen in 36.8% of the cases, including emaciation - 100%, lymphadenopathy and depilation - 85.7%. The other 21 dogs came from an area (Campo Grande) where both diseases (VL, and American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - ACL) occur. Clinical signs of the disease, mainly cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers were seen in 76.2% of the cases. Leishmania parasites were found in 39 cases: 22% in viscera, 42.5% in viscera and normal skin and 35% in cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers. All the Leishmania stocks isolated from dogs which came from Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará (VL area), and from Campo Grande (VL + ACL area) were characterized as L. donovani (except in one case) according to their schizodeme, zymodeme and serodeme. The only stock characterized as L. b. braziliensis, was isolated from the lymph node of a dog from Campo Grande with visceral disease and without skin lesions. Antimony therapy attempted in eight Leishmania donovani positive dogs was unsuccessful.
The environmental and social context in which a leptospirosis outbreak took place during the summer of 1996 in the Rio de Janeiro Western Region was examined by using spatial analysis of leptospirosis cases merged with population and environmental data in a Geographical Information System (GIS). Important differences were observed between places where residences of leptospirosis cases are concentrated and other places in the region. Water supply coverage, solid waste collection, sewerage system coverage and flood risk area were the main determining variables from an initial list of ten. The influence of these unfavorable social and environmental factors is verified hundreds of meters distant from the leptospirosis case residences, demonstrating a necessity to broaden the area of health surveillance practices. The geocoding indicated that some cases did not report contact with flood water, even though they were geographically adjacent to cases who did report this contact. Cases may only report exposures they believe are related to the disease. Geocoding is a useful tool for evaluating such bias in the exposure recall.
Leptospirosis, one of the most widely disseminated zoonoses in the world, is endemic in Brazil and is characterized by outbreaks during seasons with the greatest rainfall. In 1996 the city of Rio de Janeiro experienced one of the largest urban epidemics in the country, shortly after heavy rainstorms in the month of February, with 1,732 reported cases and 51 deaths. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial distribution of leptospirosis in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the period 1996-1999. Data were from the National Information System for Reportable Diseases. The kernel ratio for cases and population generated a smoothed surface, which estimates the intensity of the leptospirosis incidence rate. In the resulting maps over the course of the study period, the sites with the highest leptospirosis intensity were not repeated, and the sites normally considered as having the highest risk -- slum areas and flooded areas -- were not always the most heavily affected. The techniques used can represent an important methodological acquisition for establishing territory-based surveillance.
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