This study examined the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) using secondary data drawn from 20 samples (N = 11,685)-7 English and 13 non-English-including 10 community, 6 student, 1 mixed community/student, 1 meditator, and 2 clinical samples. Self-compassion is theorized to represent a system with 6 constituent components: self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness and reduced self-judgment, isolation and overidentification. There has been controversy as to whether a total score on the SCS or if separate scores representing compassionate versus uncompassionate self-responding should be used. The current study examined the factor structure of the SCS using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) to examine 5 distinct models: 1-factor, 2-factor correlated, 6-factor correlated, single-bifactor (1 general self-compassion factor and 6 group factors), and 2-bifactor models (2 correlated general factors each with 3 group factors representing compassionate or uncompassionate self-responding). Results indicated that a 1- and 2-factor solution to the SCS had inadequate fit in every sample examined using both CFA and ESEM, whereas fit was excellent using ESEM for the 6-factor correlated, single-bifactor and correlated 2-bifactor models. However, factor loadings for the correlated 2-bifactor models indicated that 2 separate factors were not well specified. A general factor explained 95% of the reliable item variance in the single-bifactor model. Results support use of the SCS to examine 6 subscale scores (representing the constituent components of self-compassion) or a total score (representing overall self-compassion), but not separate scores representing compassionate and uncompassionate self-responding. (PsycINFO Database Record
A two-factor structure of SCS with strong psychometric validity was supported in clinical and non-clinical samples. Helping individuals with limited experiences of compassion to develop positive internal processing systems seems to be related with better mental health, self-acceptance and self-nurturing abilities. The non-probabilistic sampling limits the generalization of our conclusions.
Objective: There has been a growing interest in the concept of self-compassion in Eastern psychology. The aim of the present study was to explore the dimensionality of the widely used Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), in a clinical and non-clinical sample.Method: Several Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were computed in a mixed clinical (n = 316) and in a non-clinical sample (n = 1128) from the Portuguese population. Also, differences were tested between the groups in the SCS six factors.Results: The CFA supported both a six-factor model and a hierarchical model in both samples. Also, the SCS showed good psychometric properties, with good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity. Our study further suggests that individuals with several psychopathological disorders showed significantly lower selfcompassionate abilities.Conclusions: The SCS is thus a reliable instrument to assess self-compassion, allowing a rich phenomenological analysis of this construct, which is useful for research and in particular for clinical practice.
The Forms of Self-criticizing/attacking and Self-reassuring Scale (FSCRS) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses the forms of self-criticism and self-reassurance.The aim of this study was to explore the latent structure of the FSCRS in a nonclinical and in a clinical sample. Data from 381 participants from the general population and from 304 participants from clinical settings were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses to explore several structural models reflecting alternative representations of the FSCRS dimensionality. Overall, the model with the best fit to the data, in both samples, was the three-factor model (Inadequate Self, Hated Self and Reassured Self subscales) replicating the FSCRS original structure. The scale showed good psychometric characteristics and the three factors discriminated between the clinical and nonclinical sample. To our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm the factor structure of the FSCRS in a purely clinical sample, and to test alternative models. This study adds to the existent literature that has been supporting the conceptualisation of self-criticism as a multidimensional construct. Given the good psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the FSCRS, its use is encouraged and recommended for the assessment of self-criticism in both clinical and research settings.
The present study compares core beliefs between a group of patients with social phobia (n = 62), other anxiety disorders (n = 41) and a group of non-psychiatric controls (n = 55). Participants completed measures to assess social anxiety and the Young's Schema Questionnaire (123-items version) that is designed to assess 15 early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). Results suggest that the schematic structure of patients with social phobia differs from the one of patients with other anxiety disorders and from normal controls'. Patients with social phobia show higher levels of EMSs particularly in the area of disconnection/rejection than patients with other anxiety disorders. Regression analysis identified the EMSs of mistrust/abuse, social undesirability/defectiveness, entitlement, emotional deprivation, unrelenting standards and shame, as the ones that explain most of the variance in our sample subject's anxiety that they felt in social situations and on fear of negative evaluation.
Health literacy, a more complex concept than knowledge, is a required capacity to obtain, understand, integrate and act on health information , in order to enhance individual and community health, which is defined by different levels, according to the autonomy and personal capacitation in decision making . Medium levels of Health literacy in an adolescent population were found in a study conducted in 2013/2014, being higher in sexual and reproductive health and lower in substance use. It was also noticed that the higher levels of health literacy were in the area adolescents refer to have receipt more health information. The health literacy competence with higher scores was communication skills, and the lower scores were in the capacity to analyze factors that influence health. Higher levels were also found in younger teenagers, but in a higher school level, confirming the importance of health education in these age and development stage. Adolescents seek more information in health professionals and parents, being friends more valued as a source information in older adolescents, which enhance the importance of peer education mainly in older adolescents . As a set of competences based on knowledge, health literacy should be developed through education interventions, encompassing the cultural and social context of individuals, since the society, culture and education system where the individual is inserted can define the way the development and enforcement of the health literacy competences . The valued sources of information should be taken into account, as well as needs of information in some topics referred by adolescents in an efficient health education. Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness which has a profound effect on the health and well-being related with the well-known nature of psychotic symptoms. The exercise has the potential to improve the life of people with schizophrenia improving physical health and alleviating psychiatric symptoms. However, most people with schizophrenia remains sedentary and lack of access to exercise programs are barriers to achieve health benefits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise on I) the type of intervention in mental health, II) in salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol and serum levels of S100B and BDNF, and on III) the quality of life and selfperception of the physical domain of people with schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 31 females in long-term institutions in the Casa de Saúde Rainha Santa Isabel, with age between 25 and 63, and with diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Physical fitness was assessed by the six-minute walk distance test (6MWD). Biological variables were determined by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Psychological variables were assessed using SF-36, PSPP-SCV, RSES and SWLS tests. Walking exercise has a positive impact on physical fitness (6MWD -p = 0.001) and physical components of the psychological test...
Self-compassion is an adaptive self-attitude when considering personal inadequacies or difficult life situations and seems to be crucial to adolescent's experience. However, self-compassion remains less investigated in adolescence. This paper aims to analyse the psychometric properties of Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) and test its six-factor structure through a Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a representative sample of adolescents. The sample consists of 3165 adolescents, aged between 12 and 19 years old (Mage = 15.49) from Portuguese schools. Results confirm the six-factor and second-order structures of the SCS and the measurement invariance across gender. The SCS and subscales also revealed good internal reliability and convergent validity with measures of positive emotional memories, depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that the SCS is a valid and reliable measure to assess self-compassion among adolescents.
Objective: To assess the efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP program in reducing psychopathic traits among male detained youth. Method:In this controlled trial, a treatment group (n = 58) and a control group (n = 61) answered the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short (YPIS) and the Proposed Specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD) at baseline, posttreatment, and six months' follow-up. Treatment participants attended the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP; controls only received Treatment As Usual. Treatment effects were tested with latent growth curve models (LGCM).Results: At baseline, no significant differences between groups were found. Results from LGCM showed that condition was a significant predictor of change over time observed in almost all outcome measures. Concerning the YPIS, treatment participants presented a significant decrease both in the total score and in the YPIS factors scores when compared with the controls (medium/large effect sizes; growth modeling analysis -GMA d ranging from .58 to 1.12).Considering the PSCD, treatment participants also showed a significant decrease both in the total score and in the PSCD factors scores (except for the grandiose-manipulative factor) when compared with controls (medium effect sizes; GMA d ranging from .53 to .72). Results also showed that treatment effects were maintained six months after the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP completion. Conclusions:Findings indicate that the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP is a promising treatment approach to reduce psychopathic traits among male detained youth, suggesting that interventions targeting these traits should be considered in their rehabilitation, as the absence of tailored interventions may increase the levels of psychopathic traits and its associated risks.
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