Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are among the main responsible agents for mastitis in sheep. Cure rates can be reduced due to several causes, such as those related to virulence factors presented by microorganisms. This study aims at characterizing the virulence and resistance factors to antimicrobial agents in different CNS species isolated from sheep milk. After collecting milk samples, the samples were analyzed and the CNS species were identified. After identification, the susceptibility-sensitivity profile was examined using the disk diffusion technique for 10 antimicrobial agents. The DNA was extracted to detect the presence of the mecA gene, biofilm (icaADBC, bap, and bhp) and toxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, tst, and luk-PV) by PCR. Samples carrying toxin genes had their expression assessed using the reverse-transcription PCR technique. The biofilm production was assessed using the adherence method on a polystyrene plate. One hundred twelve CNS samples were isolated, 53 (47.3%) from animals with subclinical mastitis and 59 (52.7%) from healthy animals. Drugs tested have shown to be efficient for most CNS samples. The largest resistance percentage of CNS was found for the penicillin (17.0%) and tetracycline (10.7%) and 4 samples carried the mecA gene. As for the biofilm genes, the icaADBC operon was found in 10 (8.9%) samples, the bap gene was found in 16 (14.3%), and the bhp gene was found in 3 (2.7%). In addition, 69 (61.6%) samples produced biofilm. The survey of toxin genes has shown that 70 (62.5%) samples showed some toxin-encoding gene. However, none of the samples has expressed any of the genes from those toxins studied.
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii that can infect a large variety of animals, including humans. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of anti-T.gondii antibodies in dogs from a peripheral district of Botucatu and to establish the association among some epidemiological variables in order to evaluate risk factors for toxoplasmosis infection. Serum samples from dogs were screened using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. Anti-T.gondii antibody prevalence was 56%. The highest titer was 1024 (1.79%) and the most frequent titers were 16 (57.14%) and 64 (33.93%). The chi-square (X 2 ) test revealed significant association among variables such as dog access to street, ingestion of raw meat and presence of synantropic animals in the domestic environment. These results demonstrate that toxoplasmosis is present in dogs from Jardim Santa Elisa district.
RESUMO A mastite é uma resposta inflamatória da glândula mamária, sendo a infecção mais frequente do gado destinado a produção leiteira. A utilização de antimicrobianos é prática rotineira para o tratamento desta afecção. O alto custo dos medicamentos e a presença destes como resíduos no leite são fatores que devem ser considerados na terapia convencional. A homeopatia é uma possibilidade de tratamento, que se adequa às mastites, e praticamente a única opção para a obtenção de produtos orgânicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento homeopático, pela realização da prova do Tamis diariamente, e pela contagem de células somáticas, California Mastitis Test – CMT, contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias – UFC, e pela análise da produção diária de leite. Foram selecionados 2 lotes de 50 animais em fase de lactação, estabelecidos previamente pelo proprietário, categorizados como grupo controle e experimental. Foram realizadas quatro coletas de leite, antes da utilização do tratamento, quatro coletas durante o período de tratamento, e uma coleta duas semanas após o seu término. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas quanto a UFC e CCS. Quanto ao CMT, observou-se redução nos casos de mastite subclinica no grupo experimental. O agente mais comumente isolado foi Corynebacterium bovis em ambos os grupos durante todo o experimento. Quanto à produção de leite, não houve diferença significante estatisticamente entre os dois grupos. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho sugerem a utilização de métodos alternativos de tratamento das mastites, e por outro lado mostram a necessidade de novos estudos para se avaliar a eficácia da homeopatia.
Background: Chlamydophilosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydophila abortus, responsible for reproductive damage in small ruminants, and economic losses to animal production. In addition, it is classified as a zoonosis once it presents symptoms similar to numerous bacterial and viral infections of the reproductive system, making clinical diagnosis difficult. The objective of this work was to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-C. abortus antibodies in goats and to identify the risk factors for the disease in two mesoregions of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.Material, Methods & Results: This research was carried out in two mesoregions of the State of Rio Grande do Norte (Central Potiguar - CP and West Potiguar - WP) located in the Northeast of Brazil. These mesoregions together represent 83% of the regional herd. A total of 54 properties were studied. Those are distributed in seven municipalities: Afonso Bezerra, Angicos, Lages and Pedro Avelino, in the CP mesoregion; and Apodi, Caraúbas, and Mossoró, in the OP mesoregion. We used 540 animals from herds characterized as non-defined breed (NDB) and native breed, regardless of their productive functions, being frequent the consortium of caprine and ovine species. Blood samples were collected through jugular venipuncture by vacuum system with 5 mL tubes without anticoagulant. After collection, the tubes were centrifuged at 1500 g for 15 min. Detection of anti-Chlamydophila sp. antibodies was performed by the Complement Fixation Test. In parallel with the collection, a questionnaire was applied addressing general property and producer characteristics. Seroprevalence of chlamydophilosis in the CP mesoregion was 3.04% (7/230) for the animals and 26.1% (6/23) for the properties, whereas, in the WP mesoregion, the values were 4.2% (13/310) and 35.5% (11/31), respectively. In the final logistic regression model, no variable analyzed was considered to be associated with a higher probability of C. abortus positive properties. There was no significant difference (P = 0.76) in the infection among the studied mesoregions. All the seven municipalities evaluated, had at least one positive property. No serology was found with titers greater than 1:32. The results of the suspects with titers of 1:16 were 3.9% (9/230) in the CP and 3.5% (11/310) in the WP mesoregion. None of the 82 breeding animals tested were C. abortus reagent, but three were suspected. The highest prevalence for the infection was seen in the matrices with 5.6% (18/321), followed by young females with 2.9% (1/35), young males with 1.2% (1/82) and breeding animals with 0% (0/82).Discussion: The seroprevalence to Chlamydophila abortus found in the state of Rio Grande do Norte was lower than that found in most Brazilian states, and even in other countries. The presence of properties with positive animals displays a risk of dissemination of the disease in the region. In addition, the presence of suspect animals may indicate a much larger number of positive animals. The existence of false-negative animals in the herd can lead to difficulties in controlling and eradicating this disease. Although none of the breeding animals were reagent to C. abortus in the CF test, the possibility of venereal transmission should not be discarded. As some animals remained suspects, it may indicate an initial infection phase and seroconversion process, possibly characterizing future transmitters of the bacterium via semen. However, even though seroprevalence was numerically low, this disease should be a cause for concern due to its severity and spread capacity among herds, and especially because it is a zoonosis. We conclude that chlamydophilosis is present in goat breeding in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and female animals are more susceptible to Chlamydophila abortus infection.
Considerações sobre o diagnóstico sorológico da brucelose ovina no Brasil-Uma revisão Considerations on the serological diagnosis of ovine brucellosis in Brazil-A review
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