With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a ‘one size fits all’ crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market.
In rice-consuming countries, specific varieties are recognized as premium, "gold standard" varieties, while others are recognized as being superior but second best, despite being identical using the current suite of tools to evaluate quality. The objectives of this study were to determine if there are distinguishable differences in sensory properties of premium and second best varieties and whether these differences are common to premium varieties. Color, an important sensory property, was determined on the raw and cooked rice using a colorimeter. As raw rice, some of the premium varieties were whiter than their second best counterparts while others were not. However, when cooked, with two exceptions, the premium varieties were of the same or greater whiteness than their counterparts. A trained sensory panel employed descriptive sensory analysis, an objective tool, to characterize and analytically measure the flavor (aromatics, taste, mouthfeel) and texture of premium and second best varieties collected from nine rice-consuming countries. Sweet taste, popcorn aroma/ flavor, and water-like metallic mouthfeel showed significant differences in intensity between the premium-second best variety pairs. Slickness, roughness, and springiness were the major traits that distinguished the texture of varieties. Quality evaluation programs do not routinely measure these texture and flavor traits, but the fact that they distinguished the varieties in most pairs indicates that their measurement should be added to the suite of grain quality tests in the development of new higher-yielding, stresstolerant varieties. The incorporation of premium quality will ensure that quality is no impediment to widespread adoption leading to enhanced productivity and food security.
ABSTRACT. The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A
Amylose content is a parameter that correlates with the cooking behavior of rice. It is measured at the earliest possible stages of rice improvement programs to enable breeders to build the foundations of appropriate grain quality during cultivar development. Amylose is usually quantified by absorbance of the amylose-iodine complex. The International Network for Quality Rice (INQR) conducted a survey to determine ways that amylose is measured, reproducibility between laboratories, and sources of variation. Each laboratory measured the amylose content of a set of 17 cultivars of rice. The study shows that five different versions of the iodine
Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver nova formulação de snack por extrusão termoplástica a partir de mistura de farinhas de quirera de arroz e de bandinha de feijão, bem como avaliar o potencial nutricional, tecnológico e sensorial do novo produto. A farinha de bandinha de feijão carioca foi incorporada à farinha de quirera de arroz na proporção de 30%. O snack foi produzido em extrusora monorrosca, escala piloto. Os parâmetros de extrusão foram fixos, utilizando-se três zonas de extrusão com temperaturas de 40, 60 e 85 °C; velocidade do parafuso de 177 rpm; taxa de alimentação de 292 g.min-1, e matriz circular de 3,85 mm de diâmetro. A amostra de snack foi submetida a caracterizações fisicoquímica, tecnológica e sensorial. Observou-se efeito significativo da farinha de bandinha de feijão no aumento dos teores proteico e de fibras no snack obtido, quando comparada à farinha de quirera de arroz. Em relação às características tecnológicas do produto, obteve-se 0,17 g.cm-3 para densidade aparente, 7,75 para o índice de expansão e 435, g.f para a dureza instrumental. A formulação estudada foi aceita sensorialmente, com índice de aceitação para impressão global de 76%. Conclui-se que é possível produzir snacks por extrusão a partir da incorporação de 30% de farinha de bandinha de feijão à farinha de quirera de arroz, resultando em produto aceito sensorialmente e com adequado valor nutricional.
Please cite this article as: Pramiu, P.V., Rizzi, R.L., do Prado, N.V., Coelho, S.R.M., Bassinello, P.Z., Numerical modeling of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) hydration: The effects of temperature and low pressure, Journal of Food Engineering (2015), doi: http://dx. AbstractChickpea is a leguminous that can be consumed both fresh and baked, and must be hydrated in both cases. The objective of this study was to discuss mathematical and numerical models, and also experimentally evaluate the process of water uptake in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under different temperatures and pressures, determining the diffusion coefficient of water in the grains and the activation energy of the hydration process. The values for the diffusion coefficient ranged from 7.38 × 10 −11 to 5.21 × 10 −10 m 2 s −1 . The activation energy was determined at 36.040kJ mol −1 , the activation volume at −7.724 × 10 3 cm 3 mol −1 and the constant value was 2.185 ×10 −4 . By comparing the experimental results with those obtained from the analytical solution of the theoretical model, there was a satisfactory fit of the model to the experimental data, and the hydration curves were plotted. A good adjustment of the numerical model, the model of Abu-Ghannam and the Peleg model was made to the experimental data. The Arrhenius-Eyring type equation was used to explain the dependency of the diffusion coefficient with the temperature and pressure in the hydration process.
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