Reasons for performing study: Little is known in quantitative terms about the influence of different head‐neck positions (HNPs) on the loading pattern of the locomotor apparatus. Therefore it is difficult to predict whether a specific riding technique is beneficial for the horse or if it may increase the risk for injury.
Objective: To improve the understanding of forelimb‐hindlimb balance and its underlying temporal changes in relation to different head and neck positions.
Methods: Vertical ground reaction force and time parameters of each limb were measured in 7 high level dressage horses while being ridden at walk and trot on an instrumented treadmill in 6 predetermined HNPs: HNP1 ‐ free, unrestrained with loose reins; HNP2 ‐ neck raised, bridge of the nose in front of the vertical; HNP3 ‐ neck raised, bridge of the nose behind the vertical; HNP4 ‐ neck lowered and flexed, bridge of the nose considerably behind the vertical; HNP5 ‐ neck extremely elevated and bridge of the nose considerably in front of the vertical; HNP6 ‐ neck and head extended forward and downward. Positions were judged by a qualified dressage judge. HNPs were assessed by comparing the data to a velocity‐matched reference HNP (HNP2). Differences were tested using paired t test or Wilcoxon signed rank test (P<0.05).
Results: At the walk, stride duration and overreach distance increased in HNP1, but decreased in HNP3 and HNP5. Stride impulse was shifted to the forehand in HNP1 and HNP6, but shifted to the hindquarters in HNP5. At the trot, stride duration increased in HNP4 and HNP5. Overreach distance was shorter in HNP4. Stride impulse shifted to the hindquarters in HNP5. In HNP1 peak forces decreased in the forelimbs; in HNP5 peak forces increased in fore‐ and hindlimbs.
Conclusions: HNP5 had the biggest impact on limb timing and load distribution and behaved inversely to HNP1 and HNP6. Shortening of forelimb stance duration in HNP5 increased peak forces although the percentage of stride impulse carried by the forelimbs decreased.
Potential relevance: An extremely high HNP affects functionality much more than an extremely low neck.
SummaryBackgroundThe main criteria for lameness assessment in horses are head movement for forelimb lameness and pelvic movement for hindlimb lameness. However, compensatory head nod in horses with primary hindlimb lameness is a well‐known phenomenon. This compensatory head nod movement can be easily misinterpreted as a sign of primary ipsilateral forelimb lameness. Therefore, discriminating compensatory asymmetries from primary directly pain‐related movement asymmetries is a prerequisite for successful lameness assessment.ObjectivesTo investigate the association between head, withers and pelvis movement asymmetry in horses with induced forelimb and hindlimb lameness.Study designExperimental study.MethodsIn 10 clinically sound Warmblood riding horses, forelimb and hindlimb lameness were induced using a sole pressure model. The horses were then trotted on a treadmill. Three‐dimensional optical motion capture was used to collect kinematic data from reflective markers attached to the poll, withers and tubera sacrale. The magnitude and side (left or right) of the following symmetry parameters, vertical difference in minimum position, maximum position and range‐up were calculated for head, withers, and pelvis. Mixed models were used to analyse data from induced forelimb and hindlimb lameness.ResultsFor each mm increase in pelvic asymmetry in response to hindlimb lameness induction, withers movement asymmetry increased by 0.35–0.55 mm, but towards the contralateral side. In induced forelimb lameness, for each mm increase in head movement asymmetry, withers movement asymmetry increased by 0.05–0.10 mm, in agreement with the head movement asymmetry direction, both indicating lameness in the induced forelimb.Main limitationsResults must be confirmed in clinically lame horses trotting overground.ConclusionsThe vertical asymmetry pattern of the withers discriminated a head nod associated with true forelimb lameness from the compensatory head movement asymmetry caused by primary hindlimb lameness. Measuring movement symmetry of the withers may, thus, aid in determining primary lameness location.
SummaryBackgroundObjective lameness assessment is gaining more importance in a clinical setting, necessitating availability of reference values.ObjectivesTo investigate the between ‐path, ‐trial and ‐day variation, between and within horses, in the locomotion symmetry of horses in regular use that are perceived sound.Study designObservational study with replicated measurement sessions.MethodsTwelve owner‐sound horses were trotted on the straight line and on the lunge. Kinematic data were collected from these horses using 3D optical motion capture. Examinations were repeated on 12 occasions over the study which lasted 42 days in total. For each horse, measurements were grouped as five replicates on the first and second measurement days and two replicates on the third measurement day. Between measurement days 2 and 3, every horse had a break from examination of at least 28 days. Previously described symmetry parameters were calculated: RUD and RDD (Range Up/Down Difference; difference in upward/downward movement between right and left halves of a stride); MinDiff and MaxDiff (difference between the two minima/maxima of the movement); HHDswing and HHDstance (Hip Hike Difference‐swing/‐stance; difference between the upward movement of the tuber coxae during swingphase/stancephase). Data are described by the between‐measurement variation for each parameter. A linear mixed model was used to test for the effect of time, surface and path. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to access repeatability.ResultsMean between‐measurement variation was (MinDiff, MaxDiff, RUD, RDD): 13, 12, 20, 16 mm (head); 4, 3, 6, 4 mm (withers) and 5, 4, 6, 6 mm (pelvis); (HHDswing, HHDstance): 7 and 7 mm. More between‐measurement variation is seen on the first measurement day compared to the second and third measurement days. In general, less variation is seen with increasing number of repetitions. Less between‐measurement variation is seen on hard surface compared to soft surface. More between‐measurement variation is seen on the circle compared to the straight line. Between‐horse variation was clearly larger than within‐horse variation. ICC values for the head, withers and pelvis symmetry parameters were 0.68 (head), 0.76 (withers), 0.85 (pelvis).Main limitationsLunge measurements on a hard surface were not performed.ConclusionsBetween‐measurement variation may be substantial, especially in head motion. This should be considered when interpreting clinical data after repeated measurements, as in routine lameness assessments.
The implants failed to produce reasonable repair tissue in this osteochondral defect model, although the CaP base in the -P group integrated well with the recipient bone. The study stresses the importance of long-term in vivo studies to assess the efficacy of cartilage repair techniques.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.