Introduction: Giant cell granuloma is a relatively common lesion in oral cavity. Central giant cell granuloma usually treated with surgical excision with good prognosis. However in few cases, the lesion exhibits more aggressive behaviour, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. It is difficult to identify these cases based on histological features so the need for diagnostic markers is of paramount importance to spare patients unwanted effects.
Aim:To investigate expression of Ki67, CD31, CD68 and P53 proteins in peripheral and central (aggressive and non-aggressive) giant cell granuloma and whether their expression level can be used to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive types.
Material and methods:A total of 33 cases; 15 cases of peripheral giant cell granuloma, 10 cases of nonaggressive central giant cell granuloma and 8 cases of aggressive central giant cell granuloma were tested for Ki64, CD31, CD68 and P53 expression using immunohistochemical staining.Results: Ki67 was expressed in all study cases with significantly higher levels in aggressive variant. CD31 expressed in all cases with significantly higher levels in peripheral giant cell granuloma. CD68 was expressed in all cases with no significant differences. P53 was only identified in central giant cell granuloma with significantly higher levels in aggressive type.
Conclusion:Ki67 and P53 expression might be useful markers to identify aggressive central giant cell granuloma.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is diagnosed at late stages. The prevalence of metastatic lesions directly correlates with poor patient outcome. The progression to metastatic disease requires changes in the tumor microenvironment. Within the microenvironment, infiltrating immune cells facilitate the spread of tumor cells. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes play an important role in the response of tumors to therapy. Tumor-associated macrophages are the main cellular component in stroma of many tumors. The goal of cancer treatment is to abolish cell proliferation and to induce aptoptosis. Apoptosis is a key mechanism of tumor cell elimination. The Bcl2 protein itself is a product of a proto-oncogene and has an antiapoptotic action. The study used immunohistochemical staining of CD68, CD3, Bcl2 to measure macrophages, lymphocytes and evaluate apoptosis in 25 included cases; 5 cases of non specific dermatitis, 5 normal skin and 15 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) graded into 5 well, 5 moderately and 5 poorly differentiated. CD68+ve macrophages were significantly higher in moderately differentiated HNSCC than well differentiated tumors. Poorly differentiated showed significantly lower CD68+ve macrophages than moderately differentiated tumors. CD3 +ve lymphocytes were significantly higher in well differentiated followed by moderate and poorly differentiated. CD3+ve lymphocytes were significantly higher in cases of dermatitis than HNSCC cases. Poorly differentiated SCC showed higher Bcl2 positivity followed by moderately differentiated. Well differentiated SCC showed the least Bcl2 positivity. This difference was significant. Our results showed tumor infiltrating macrophage and lymphocyte can predict the progression and prognosis of HNSCCs and the involvement of Bcl2 in HNSCC tumorigenesis.
The study aimed to examine the impact of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on the healing of a mandibular bone defect in obese rats. In this research, forty-eight adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups; Group 1: were fed on standard diet. Group 2: were fed on high fat diet for four weeks for obesity inducing. A bone defect on the right side of mandible was created in each rat then all rats were subdivided into two equal subgroups. In subgroups 1.1 and 2.1, the bone defects were left without treating whereas in subgroups 1.2 and 2.2 the bone defects were filled with PRP. Two and four weeks postoperatively, six rats per group were euthanized and the samples were processed histological examination, X-ray elemental microanalysis and scanning electron microscopic examination. The results showed that rats received high fat diet and their bone defects left untreated revealed delayed bone healing and depicted significant decrease in bone calcium level in comparison with other subgroups. Interestingly, rats received high fat diet and their bone defects filled with platelet rich plasma revealed marked progress in bone healing and exhibited significant increase in bone calcium level in comparison with rats received high fat diet and with untreated bone defect. Conclusion: Obesity impaired the healing of mandibular bone defect. However, PRP has the ability to offset the negative effect of obesity and promote bone healing in obese rats. Therefore, it is highly recommended in obese individuals to fill the surgical bone defects with PRP.
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