Microalgae are autotrophic microorganisms having extremely high photosynthetic efficiency and are valued as rich source of lipids, hydrocarbons, and other complex oils for biodiesel besides being an invaluable source of bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Biodiesel produced from oilseed crops such as jatropha and soy have lower yields per unit land area and threaten food security. Indeed, microalgae have higher oil yields amounting to about 40 times more oil per unit area of land in comparison to terrestrial oilseed crops such as soy and canola. Further, microalgae production does not require arable land for cultivation. Biofuel is regarded as a proven clean energy source and several entrepreneurs are attempting to commercialize this renewable source. Technology for producing and using biofuel has been known for several years and is frequently modified and upgraded. In view of this, a review is presented on microalgae as second generation biofuel. Microalgal farming for biomass production is the biggest challenge and opportunity for the biofuel industry. These are considered to be more efficient in converting solar energy into chemical energy and are amongst the most efficient photosynthetic plants on earth. Microalgae have simple cellular structure, a lipid-rich composition, and a rapid rate of reproduction. Many microalgal strains can be grown in saltwater and other harsh conditions. Some autotrophic microalgae can also be converted to heterotrophic ones to accumulate high quality oils using organic carbon. However, there are several technical challenges that need to be addressed to make microalgal biofuel profitable. The efficiency of microalgal biomass production is highly influenced by environmental conditions, e.g., light of proper intensity and wavelength, temperature, CO 2 concentration, nutrient composition, salinities and mixing conditions, and by the choice of cultivation systems: open versus closed pond systems, photobioreactors. Currently, microalgae for commercial purpose are grown mostly in open circular/elongated "raceway" ponds which generally have low yields and high production costs. However, a hybrid system combining closed photobioreactor and open pond is a better option. The biggest hurdle in commercialization of microalgal biofuel is the high cost and energy requirement for the microalgal biomass production, particularly agitation, harvesting, and drying of biomass. In order to conserve energy and reduce costs, algae are often harvested in a two-step process involving flocculation followed by centrifugation, filtration, or micro-straining to get a solid concentration. However, the major bottlenecks in algal biodiesel production within the cell can be identified and handled by adopting a system approach involving transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Research and developments in the field of new materials and advanced designs for cultivation in closed bioreactors, use of waste water for biomass production, screening of efficient strains, high-value coproduct strategy,...
The potential opportunities promised by nanotechnology for enabling advances in defence technologies are staggering. Although these opportunities are likely to be realised over a few decades, many advantages are currently being explored, particularly for defence applications. This review provides an insight into the capabilities offered by nanocomposites which include smart materials, harder/lighter platforms, new fuel sources and storage as well as novel medical applications. It discusses polymer-based nanocomposite materials, nanoscale fillers and provides examples of the actual and potential uses of nanocomposite materials in defence with practical examples.
A total of 862 cattle were sampled for both haematological (703) and coprological (159) investigations at the Large Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 22.9 % (161/703) of cattle were infected with haematozoa comprising Theileria annulata (14.65 %), Trypanosoma evansi (0.28 %), Babesia bigemina (1.56 %) and Anaplasma marginale (8.53 %) while mixed infection appeared in 2.13 % (15/703) animals. The prevalence of total haemoparasites and A. marginale infections were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in younger animals <1 year of age whereas, T. evansi and A. marginale infections were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in males. Coprological examination revealed that the overall prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection was 16.98 % (27/159). Among the revealed parasites, amphistomes, Fasciola spp., Eimeria spp., Balantidium coli, strongyles and Trichuris spp. were detected from 3.77, 1.88, 3.77, 2.52, 10.69 and 1.26 % of examined animals. Except coccidiosis, there was no significant variation of GI parasitic infections in relation to sex as Eimeria spp. were found higher (p < 0.01) in males. The prevalence of Trichuris spp. was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in younger animals <6 months of age. The present work emphasized that strongyles and T. annulata were the most prevalent GI and haemoparasites, respectively.
Verma, M.L., Minakshi, M. and Singh, N.K. (2014)SynthesisThis is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
In the current study, a total of 214 blood samples from dogs in and around Ludhiana, Punjab (India), suspected for canine babesiosis were examined with conventional and molecular assays. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral thin blood smears revealed an overall prevalence of 7.47% (16/214) for canine babesiosis encompassing 0.93% (2/214) of large Babesia and 6.54% (14/214) of Babesia gibsoni. However, molecular diagnosis revealed 15.42% (33/214) samples positive for B. gibsoni infection as evident by the presence of 671 bp amplicon. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence of B. gibsoni was associated with various risk factors, namely, age (P < 0.001; OR: 0.398; CI 95%: 0.080–1.799), sex (P = 0.022; OR: 0.849; CI 95%: 0.403–1.791), breed of host (P = 0.371; OR: 3.345; CI 95%: 1.045–10.710), and season (P = 0.230; OR: 2.143; CI 95%: 0.788–5.830). The prevalence of B. gibsoni was higher in summer as compared to winter season and in younger dogs, while breed and sex of the host were not significantly associated with the occurrence of the disease.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.