In this paper, we consider the control of animal carcasses and the detection of such a disease as scrapie. For our country, this animal disease remains quite rare, but at the same time it should not be overlooked. This is due to the fact that there are regular purchases of breeding cattle from abroad, and this is a risk of importing an infected animal. The relevance of the work is that the disease of sheep and goats-scrapie can not be detected at very early stages of its development. Symptomatic manifestations do not appear immediately, there are no clear clinical characteristics, which is why this disease can not be diagnosed for a long time. To assess the health status and predict the quality of products obtained, new approaches are needed to study the products of sheep and goat slaughter. Great importance is given to standard methods of studying, identifying certain patterns in clinical, anamnestic, morphological, metric and anatomical indicators of the animal body. Using these indicators and changing their dynamic characteristics, it is possible to make significant adjustments in the definition of this disease, which would allow us to develop a number of rules for modern veterinary and sanitary evaluation of animal slaughter products.
We have developed an ointment preparation consisting of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles, which form the basis of the nanocomposition. This drug can reduce the healing time of the wound surface due to the inclusion of nanodispersed particles in the composition. Application of nanoparticles allows to reduce inflammatory process, to carry out disinfecting treatment of a wound surface from pathogenic microorganisms, and accordingly to create optimum conditions for reparative process. Nanocomposite preparation has many advantages over existing analogues without irritating and allergic effects. Due to the high adsorption capacity, it allows to accelerate the healing process of the damaged surface of the skin. Initial studies were conducted on laboratory rats at the age of 6 months with a close mass that was up to 250 g in accordance with international requirements for the use of laboratory animals. As a result of the experiment, a new ointment preparation based on silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles, which are active components of the nanocomposition, was obtained. The use of these components allowed to accelerate the process of reparative restoration of the skin with full recovery of the studied animals. As shown by the experience, the recovery rate on average accelerated by seven days, compared with similar drugs available on the pharmaceutical market.
The intensity and direction of the living organism’s metabolic processes determine the growth rate, development, nutrients synthesis, as well as the reproductive body function and the biosynthesis of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the form of feedstuff and raw materials. The higher animals’ productivity, the more intensive are metabolic processes. The living bodies’ metabolism proceeds with a certain speed and at the same time contrariwise, but with accurate coherence and interaction due to the participation of “life regulators”, enzymes, which represent the specific proteins, the activity of which is regulated by hormones, vitamins and various synergistic elements. Chemical elements included in the living organism structure are not synthesized in it but must be originated from feeds and other nutrients. Changes in essential micronutrients supply shall not be studied in isolation from the general bio-geochemical situation. Both excess and deficiency may lead to metabolic disorders involving enzyme systems. Knowledge applied by veterinary specialists about the imbalance of various chemical elements in soil, water and feeds has formed the basis for raising the issue of endemic animal diseases diagnosis and prevention. The feeds inadequacy often leads to undernutrition and the reduction of their value in the stall period, which causes the fatness reduction and, therefore, the decrease in mobility and activity, and the weakness of animals. General inspection and palpation of animals reveal ruffled coat, dry-looking and non-supple skin, and if the lack of nutrients becomes more intense, anemic mucous membranes (in more complicated forms even cyanosis and icterus) are observed.
The study of immunological relationships in the functional system “mother-placenta-offspring” can make a significant contribution to the solution of the issue of improving the safety of the population of newborn animals and poultry. The pathology of the antenatal development of animals has not been sufficiently studied. Antenatal pathology of animals is more often manifested in the form of congenital malformations (anomalies) of development. Congenital defects are usually called those that occur during intrauterine development. However, congenital malformations are also observed in the period of postnatal development – as a consequence of a violation of the further formation of organs in animals. There is a need to develop a method for determining the immunological reactivity of the animal body, which would allow to assess the combined functional state of cell-mediated immunological reactivity of innate and acquired immunity in the functional system “mother-placenta-offspring” and determine the factors that cause immunosuppression. Determination of the immunological reactivity of the animal body includes a blood test by conducting a biological test, which uses the biological activity of red blood cells in the Nitroblue Tetrazolium Test and according to their sorption activity-more than 40% - animals are classified as individuals with reduced immunological reactivity among similar ones.
Частная зоотехния, технология производства продуктов животноводства СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ ЛЕЧЕНИЯ И ДИАГНОСТИКИ НЕСАХАРНОГО ДИАБЕТА У СОБАК Private animal husbandry, technology of production of animal products MODERN ASPECTS OF DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF DIABETES INSIPIDUS IN DOGS
The usage of pastures in sheep feeding technology leads to frequent cases of limb lesions caused by inflammation of the interdigital gland. The aim of the research was to carry out a comparative assessment of clinical manifestation and various methods of inflammation treatment of sheep interdigital gland. The work was carried out in economic and production conditions of sheep breeding enterprises in Stepnovsky district of the Stavropol Territory. In order to identify sick animals with interdigital gland inflammation, a surgical clinical examination of the animals was carried out in summer and winter periods. After medical examination, the sick animals were isolated into separate cages and divided into 3 groups: Group I with the initial stage of the disease; Group II with purulent inflammation; Group III with complications (corolla phlegmon, purulent pododermatitis, purulent laminitis). It was found that during the illness and treatment period, depending on the time of year and the severity of the disease, the animal loses up to 10% of its live weight with I and II treatment methods and with method III - up to 25%. At the end of the study, it was noted visually that wool shearing per animal decreased by 0.9 kg as a result of depletion in groups I and II, and in the third - by 0.5 kg. It is caused by the animal lameness, appetite decrease and increased body temperature. According to the results of the work, 68 animals with interdigital gland inflammation were detected from 1000 heads of sheep in the summer, which amounted to 6.8%. In winter, 18 sick animals out of 720 heads were identified, which is 2.5%. The interdigital gland impairment was found in adult sheep (4.5% in summer, 1.9% in winter) more often than in lambs (2.3% and 0.5%, respectively). We determined that the most effective way to treat interdigital gland inflammation is its extirpation using a complex powder.
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