Background The knowledge on bovine vaccines against respiratory viruses on bronchoalveolar fluid cells is scarce. Objective To compare the effects of a commercial intranasal (IN) and intramuscular (IM) vaccine against bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex viruses on bronchoalveolar fluid cells of healthy heifers. Methods 21 healthy heifers were assigned to three treatment groups: control (CO, N = 7), intranasally vaccinated (IN) (n = 7), and intramuscularly vaccinated (IM) (n = 7). The IN group received 1 mL of the commercial vaccine in each nostril once containing attenuated BoHV-1, bPIV-3, and BRSV. The IM group was vaccinated with two doses of 2 mL with an interval of 21 days of the commercial vaccine containing attenuated BoHV-1, bPIV-3, and BRSV plus inactivated BVDV. At day 0 (D0), before the first vaccine dose, and at D3, D7, and D21, after the last vaccine dose, airway bronchoscopy was performed to observe local irritation and collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The bronchoalveolar count, cytological evaluation, bronchoalveolar cell oxidative metabolism, and total bronchoalveolar IgA and IgG were measured. Results The IN vaccine increased neutrophil cellularity at D7 and D21 and total IgA at D3 in BALF. Total IgA in BALF also increased at D3 and oxidative metabolism of bronchoalveolar cells at D21 lowered compared to the CO group. Following IM vaccination there was no alteration of immunoglobulins or cell oxidative metabolism in BALF. Both vaccines reduced the number of alveolar macrophages. Conclusion Both vaccines induced bronchoalveolar inflammation during the establishment of the vaccine immunity, which was more expressive in the IN protocol.
Painful procedures can affect the function of innate immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, increasing the risk of infectious diseases. The present work aimed to verify if the analgesics flunixin meglumine or ketoprofen can attenuate the pain/discomfort of newborn lambs submitted by elastration tail docking and thereby avoid the impairment of blood granulocytes function. Twenty-one neonate lambs were divided into three treatments: the control group (n=7), not subjected to caudectomy; the flunixin group (n=7), subjected to caudectomy under local anesthesia and analgesia with two doses of flunixin meglumine; and the ketoprofen group (n=7), subjected to caudectomy under local anesthesia and two doses of ketoprofen. Pain indicators were observed by pain posture score (PS), the number of vocalizations (V), frequency of the movement of the ears (EF), and respiratory rates (RR), observed by a 10 minutes videos for each time points: -15min, 6h, 48h, and 144h. At the same time points, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytosis of blood granulocytes were measured by flow cytometry. At 6h after caudectomy, there was a pain indicator increase (RR, V, and PS), a blood granulocyte percentage increase, and a granulocytes phagocytosis reduction for both groups. At 48h, the ketoprofen group spend more time in pain posture and, at 144h, they exhibited a ROS production granulocyte reduction without signs of pain. We conclude the flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen did not prevent the acute pain/discomfort caused by caudectomy, because the groups showed a pain behavior and impaired of the innate immune response however, the flunixin meglumine was effective in controlling the chronic pain and their effects on blood granulocytes function in compare ketoprofen.
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