Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of treating osmotic diarrhea and dehydration in calves with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) IV, isotonic electrolyte solution (IES) PO, and a combination of these 2 solutions (HSS + IES).Experimental Design: Eighteen male calves 8-30 days of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of 3 methods of fluid therapy after induction of osmotic diarrhea and dehydration. The diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administration of saccharose, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide for 48 hours. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Group 1: 7.2% hypertonic saline solution-HSS (5 mL/kg IV); Group 2: oral isotonic electrolyte solution IES (60 mL/kg PO); or Group 3: HSS+IES. Clinical signs and laboratory finding observed 48 hours post-induction (Time 0) included diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis.Results: Calves treated with HSS + IES experienced decreases in hematocrit, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma volume as well as increases in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, and central venous pressure between 1 and 3 hours post-treatment. These findings also were observed in animals treated with IES, however, at a slower rate than in the HSS + IES-treated animals. Animals treated with HSS continued to display signs of dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis 24 hours post-treatment.Conclusion: Treatment with a combination of HSS and IES produced rapid and sustainable correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis in calves with noninfections diarrhea and dehydration.
The influences of age in calves' immune system are described in their first phase of life. We hypothesized that variations that occur in the main mechanisms of lung innate response can help to identify periods of greater susceptibility to the respiratory diseases that affect calves in the first stage of their life. This study aimed to evaluate the innate immune system. Nine healthy calves were monitored for 3 mo and 8 immunologic evaluations were performed. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples were recovered by bronchoscopy. The alveolar macrophages in samples were identified by protein expression of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and underwent functional evaluation of phagocytosis (Staphylococcus aureus stained with propidium iodide and Escherichia coli). Data was assessed by one-way ANOVA (unstacked and parametric) and the Mann-Whitney test (nonparametric). Functional alterations in CD14-positive phagocytes were observed, with punctual higher intensity of phagocytosis in the third week and its decrease starting at 45 d of life. A gradual increase in phagocytosis rate was observed starting at this date. It is concluded that from 45 d of life on, alveolar macrophages have less phagocytic capacity but more cells perform this function. We suggest that this occurs because lung macrophages of calves start to maintain their immune response without passive immunity influence. Until 90 d of life, calves did not achieve the stability to conclude the maturation of local innate immune response.
ABSTRACT. - Bronchopneumonia is important for world livestock production and one of the major causes of calf mortality during the first months of life. The preventive and therapeutic measures adopted for the disease in calves in Brazil are usually based on the results of international studies; however there is not enough known which bacteria are implicated. In the first month of life calves show immaturity of their immune system, what has been little studied in regard to pneumonia. The present investigation sought to study neonate bronchopneumonia in calves, to identify which bacteria are present in the respiratory tract of healthy and, with naturally acquired pneumonia calves, to analyze the pulmonary cytological response against pathogens. For this purpose, samples of the respiratory tract were collected by tracheocenthesis. It was noted that the microflora of the tracheobronchial region of healthy and diseased calves was the same, but they were different from the one reported by international papers. The flora was constituted mainly by Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterobacteriae, allowing to infer that the prophylactic and therapeutic measures adopted internationally may not be as effective for the Brazilian condition. It was also found that newborn calves have an approximate ratio of 1:1 of macrophages and neutrophils in the tracheobronchial region when they were healthy, reaching a ratio of approximately 1:3 of macrophages and neutrophils when they were with bronchopneumonia. Probably, these profiles are characteristic of the age, a period when exists immaturity of the immune system and influenced by management factors which lead to greater inhalation of bacterial agents. RESUMO.-As broncopneumonias são afecções importantes na pecuária mundial, representando uma das principais causas de mortalidade de bezerros nos primeiros meses de vida. As medidas preventivas e terapêuticas adotadas geralmente são baseadas em resultados de estudos internacionais, não se conhecendo as bactérias implicadas nos quadros pneumônicos em animais criados no Brasil. Aliado a isso, no primeiro mês de vida, os bezerros demonstram imaturidade do sistema imune, o que tem sido pouco estudado em quadros pneumônicos. Desta maneira, objetivou--se estudar as broncopneumonias em bezerros neonatos,
The immune system of newborn calves is immature and must mature gradually. Understanding how this immunity is established may define different profiles. Twelve healthy calves were monitored during 8 time periods to assess the innate immune system during the first 90d. Blood samples were collected, and the blood phagocytes, identified by the expression of CD14 and CH138 surface molecules, were evaluated for phagocytic functionality (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli stained with propidium iodide) and the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (2,7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate oxidation). Functional changes in the CD14+ and CH138+ cells occurred at 40d of age, with sporadic increases in phagocytosis intensity and reactive oxygen species production, and decreased phagocytosis occurred at 60d of age. Therefore, fewer phagocytes were active from 40d of age, although those that were active performed their roles with greater efficacy. That change presumably occurred because the calf phagocytes began to support the immune response without the influence of passive immunity. The animals failed to reach the stability needed to complete the maturation of the innate immune response by 90d of age. These data are applicable for healthy calves only.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 32(3):267-270, março 2012 267 RESUMO.-O período neonatal dos bezerros é um momento crítico para adaptação do recém-nascido à vida extra uterina e o sistema respiratório, um dos mais exigidos funcionalmente, é frequentemente afetado por enfermidades, re- The neonatal calf is a critical moment for adaptation of the newborn to extra uterine life. The respiratory tract is functionally very demanded and often affected by disease, resulting in direct loss of their function and causing serious economic losses in livestock. The basic point to reduce these losses is appropriate clinical evaluation of neonates; but the diagnosis based solely in physical examination is very difϐicult to establish. The use of complementary analysis such cytology of the respiratory tract becomes an important diagnostic tool; however their ϐindings must be standardized in the face of different techniques employed. This research studied the dynamics of the cellularity of the bronchoalveolar and tracheobronchial region obtained through lung lavage harvested by nasotracheal catheterization technique and tracheocenthesis respectively, during the ϐirst month of life of healthy calves. The tracheobronchial cytology was inϐluenced by the time, showing decreased number of alveolar macrophages and greater number of neutrophils, possibly increased by local irritation caused by the technique, which was repeated sequentially, and/or through greater stimulation of inhaled microorganisms deposited in this region. In the bronchoalveolar region no variation in the cellular constituents in function of time was found. The results allowed the conclusion the cell population of the tracheobronchial region has changed over the week-old calves, possibly due to the technique used and/or to the normal region physiology, represented by higher magnitudes of neutrophils. Otherwise, the cells of the broncholaveolar region showed a stable behavior during the ϐirst month of life of newborn calves, presenting numerical predominance of alveolar macrophages. dundando no prejuízo direto da sua função e acarretando perdas econômicas importantes na pecuária. O ponto bási-co para reduzir estas perdas, é representado pela adequada avaliação clínica dos neonatos, todavia o diagnóstico baseado exclusivamente no exame ϐísico é muito diϐícil de ser estabelecido. O uso de exames complementares como a citologia do trato respiratório torna-se uma ferramenta diagnóstica importante nestes casos, porém faz-se necessário, padronizar seus achados frente às diferentes técnicas empregadas para a sua obtenção. Assim, o presente estudo propôs-se acompanhar as variações dos constituintes celulares da região traqueobrônquica e broncoalveolar obtidos por lavados respiratórios pelos métodos de traqueocente- Citologia dos lavados traqueobrônquico (LTB
244Pesq. Vet. Bras. 31(3): 244-246, março 2011 RESUMO.-Com o intuito de verificar a influência de diferentes condições meteorológicas na sanidade de bovinos, foi realizado citologia de lavados traqueobrônquicos obtidos por traqueocentese e leucograma sanguíneo de cinco bezerros em situações de extremos de temperatura ambiental, sendo T1 = T (temperatura ambiental) de 5 o C e UR (umidade relativa do ar) 93%; T2 = temperatura controle de T 22 o C e UR 80%; e T3 = T 30 o C e UR 41%. Pode-se observar que a condição T3 provavelmente gerou estresse nos animais, pois se observou monocitose significativa no leucograma e na análise do lavado traqueobrônquico, uma diminuição significativa de macrófagos alveolares gigantes, provavelmente por diminuição da atividade macrofágica alveolar, caracterizando esta temperatura e umidade relativa do ar como favorá-veis ao aparecimento de doenças respiratórias.TERMOS DE INDEXAÇÃO: Aparelho respiratório, temperatura ambiental, bovinos. INTRODUÇÃODiariamente os bovinos são expostos a diversos fatores agressores, e mesmo assim a maioria deles se mantém saudáveis devido a eficientes mecanismos de defesa física, celular e humoral (Liggitt 1985). No entanto situações como extremos de temperatura, transporte, união de animais de várias origens são causas comuns de estresse em bovinos que podem provocar alterações fisiológicas e hematológicas diminuindo a efetividade da resposta imunológica (Jain 1993, Muller et al. 1994, Paes et al. 2000.O principal hormônio associado a condição estressante é o cortisol , que dependendo de seus teores séricos pode causar o leucograma caracterizado por neutrofilia, linfopenia, acompanhada ou não por alterações nos valores de monócitos, eosinófilos e contagem total de leucócitos, com redução da fagocitose e das funções oxidativas dos neutrófilos (Jain 1993, Raidal et al. 1997. Além de influenciar na imunidade sanguínea, o cortisol também interfere na citologia do trato respiratório, diminuindo a ativação e poder de fagocitose de macrófagos alveolares e o metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos do lavado respiratório (Crisman et al. 1992, Raidal et al. 1997, Ishizaki et al. 2005 The study sought to evaluate whether environment temperature (T) and relative humidity (UR) had an impact on the leucogram and cytology of the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. Blood and tracheobronchial lavage were collected from 5 female healthy 4 to 7-month-old Jersey calves in three moments: T1 (T=5 o C, UR=93%) T2 (control environment temperature, T 22 o C, UR 80%), and T3 (T=30 o C, UR=41%). Monocytosis in the leucogram and a decrease in alveolar giant macrophages were observed in T3. It appears that the weather condition had an influence on the respiratory immune system of the calves due to a stress situation. We conclude that elevated temperature associated with low relative humidity appears to favor respiratory disease in 4 to 7-month-old calves.INDEX TERMS: Respiratory tract, environment temperature, cattle.
Estudou-se o perfil de variação das imunoglobulinas em lavados das regiões traqueobrônquica e broncoalveolar do trato respiratório de bezerros neonatos sadios. Vinte bezerros da raça Holandesa, recém-nascidos e clinicamente sadios, receberam o colostro e foram distribuídos em dois grupos de dez animais cada. O Grupo 1 foi submetido à técnica de sondagem nasotraqueal para obtenção de lavado bronco-alveolar (LBA) e o Grupo 2, à traqueocentese para colheita de lavado traqueobrônquico (LTB), sendo estes procedimentos realizados em intervalos semanais, iniciando-se nos primeiros dias pós-nascimento até, aproximadamente, um mês de vida. Verificaram-se maiores teores de IgG que IgA ao longo do trato respiratório e estas imunoglobulinas sofreram influências da região do trato respiratório lavado, bem como influência do tempo de vida dos bezerros. Pôde-se detectar maiores teores de imunoglobulinas no LTB, assim como as maiores taxas de IgM e IgA em comparação com aquelas do LBA. As imunoglobulinas do LBA tenderam a aumentar seus teores com a evolução das semanas de vida dos bezerros, enquanto tenderam a diminuir no LTB.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.