Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are selective and robust electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction to formate in aqueous media without the use of a metal catalyst. Polyethylenimine (PEI) functions as a co-catalyst by significantly reducing catalytic overpotential and increasing current density and efficiency. The co-catalysis appears to help in stabilizing the singly reduced intermediate CO2(•-) and concentrating CO2 in the PEI overlayer.
In aqueous solution above pH 2.4 with 4% (vol/vol) CH 3 CN, the complex [Ru II (bda)(isoq) 2 ] (bda is 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylate; isoq is isoquinoline) exists as the open-arm chelate, [Ru II (CO 2 -bpy-CO 2 − )(isoq) 2 (NCCH 3 )], as shown by 1 H and 13 C-NMR, X-ray crystallography, and pH titrations. Rates of water oxidation with the open-arm chelate are remarkably enhanced by added proton acceptor bases, as measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In 1.0 M PO 4 3-, the calculated half-time for water oxidation is ∼7 μs. The key to the rate accelerations with added bases is direct involvement of the buffer base in either atom-proton transfer (APT) or concerted electron-proton transfer (EPT) pathways. [Mebimpy is 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy is 2,2′-bipyridine; Fig. 1], both in solution and on surfaces, reveal mechanisms in which stepwise oxidative activation of aqua precursors to Ru V =O is followed by rate-limiting O-O bond formation (10-15). The results of kinetic and mechanistic studies have revealed the importance of concerted atom-proton transfer (APT) in the O-O bond-forming step. In APT, the O-O bond forms in concert with H + transfer to water or to an added base (11,12,(16)(17)(18)(19). APT can promote dramatic rate enhancements. In a recent study on surface-bound [Ru(Mebimpy)(4,4′-((HO) 2 OPCH 2 ) 2 bpy)(OH 2 )] 2+ [4,4′-((HO) 2 OPCH 2 ) 2 bpy is 4,4′-bis-methlylenephosphonato-2,2′-bipyridine] stabilized by atomic layer deposition, a rate enhancement of ∼10 6 was observed with 0.012 M added PO 4 3− at pH 12 compared with oxidation at pH 1 (20).Sun and coworkers (21, 22) have described the Ru single-site water oxidation catalysts, [Ru II (bda)(L) 2 ] (H 2 bda is 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylic acid, HCO 2 -bpy-CO 2 H; L is isoquinoline, 4-picoline, or phthalazine). They undergo rapid and sustained water oxidation catalysis with added Ce IV . A mechanism has been proposed in which initial oxidation to seven coordinate Ru IV is followed by further oxidation to Ru V (O) with O-O coupling to give a peroxo-bridged intermediate, Ru IV O-ORu IV , which undergoes further oxidation and release of O 2 (21, 22). We report here the results of a rate and mechanistic study on electrochemical water oxidation by complex , [Ru II (CO 2 -bpy-CO 2 )(isoq) 2 ] (isoq is isoquinoline) (Fig. 1). Evidence is presented for water oxidation by a chelate open form in acidic solutions. The chelate open form displays dramatic rate enhancements with added buffer bases, and the results of a detailed mechanistic study are reported here. − /HPO 4 2− phosphate buffer, I = 0.5 M (NaClO 4 )] in 4% (vol/vol) CH 3 CN at a glassy carbon electrode (GC) (0.071 cm 2 ). The Ag/AgCl [3 M NaCl, 0.21 V vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE)] reference electrode was isolated with an electrolyte filled bridge to avoid chloride ion diffusion into the anode compartment. The sample was purged with argon to remove O 2 before each scan, with only O 2 freshly produced in oxidative scans detected on reverse scans at -0.3 V vs. NHE, a...
The complex Cu(II)(Py3P) (1) is an electrocatalyst for water oxidation to dioxygen in H2PO4(-)/HPO4(2-) buffered aqueous solutions. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments with 1 at pH 8.0 at an applied potential of 1.40 V versus the normal hydrogen electrode resulted in the formation of dioxygen (84% Faradaic yield) through multiple catalyst turnovers with minimal catalyst deactivation. The results of an electrochemical kinetics study point to a single-site mechanism for water oxidation catalysis with involvement of phosphate buffer anions either through atom-proton transfer in a rate-limiting O-O bond-forming step with HPO4(2-) as the acceptor base or by concerted electron-proton transfer with electron transfer to the electrode and proton transfer to the HPO4(2-) base.
One-electron oxidation of phenol, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, and 2,6-dimethylphenol by [IrCl(6)](2-) in aqueous solution has a simple pH dependence, indicating slow bimolecular oxidation of ArOH and faster oxidation of ArO(-). H/D kinetic isotope effects as large as 3.5 for oxidation of ArOH support concerted proton-coupled electron transfer with water as the proton acceptor.
Benzoquinone/hydroquinone redox interconversion by the reversible Os(dmb)(3)(3+/2+) couple over an extended pH range with added acids and bases has revealed the existence of seven discrete pathways. Application of spectrophotometric monitoring with stopped-flow mixing has been used to explore the role of PCET. The results have revealed a role for phosphoric acid and acetate as proton donor and acceptor in the concerted electron-proton transfer reduction of benzoquinone and oxidation of hydroquinone, respectively.
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