Copper plating baths used for forming integrated circuit interconnects typically contain three or four component additive mixtures which facilitate the superfilling of via holes and trench lines during damascene plating. Extensive study over the last two decades has provided researchers with an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The role of cuprous intermediates in the copper deposition reaction has long been acknowledged, but it is not yet fully understood. In this paper we describe the results of an electrochemical study of the interaction of the organic additives used with copper and copper ions in solution. It is shown that cuprous intermediates near the copper surface affect the overpotential and the kinetics of plating. The additives regulate the presence of cuprous species on the surface; levelers and suppressors inhibit Cu þ formation, whereas accelerating additives enhance Cu þ formation. Acceleration by the bis(sodiumsulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS) additive results from accumulation of cuprous complexes near the surface. Adsorbed cuprous thiolate [Cu(I)(S(CH 2) 3 SO 3 H) ad ] is formed through interaction of Cu þ ions and SPS rather than Cu 2þ and mercaptopropane sulfonic acid (MPS).
The kinetics and mechanism of CeIV oxidation of the water oxidation catalyst [(bpy)2(H2O)RuIIIORuIII(OH2)(bpy)2]4+ (1, RuIIIORuIII) have been investigated by UV−visible measurements with application
of global analysis. The reaction proceeds by stepwise oxidation of RuIIIORuIII to RuVORuV with oxidation of
RuIVORuIII the slow step. RuVORuV has been identified as an intermediate by the appearance of its ClO4
as a black suspension in concentrated solutions at 5 °C. It is the key intermediate in water oxidation. The
mechanism may involve a bimolecular step and formation of a peroxo-bridged intermediate. Catalytic water
oxidation is greatly retarded after just a few catalytic cycles because of anation induced by O2 evolution.
Artificial photosynthesis and the production of solar fuels could be a key element in a future renewable energy economy providing a solution to the energy storage problem in solar energy conversion. We describe a hybrid strategy for solar water splitting based on a dye sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell. It uses a derivatized, core-shell nanostructured photoanode with the core a high surface area conductive metal oxide film--indium tin oxide or antimony tin oxide--coated with a thin outer shell of TiO 2 formed by atomic layer deposition. A "chromophore-catalyst assembly" 1, [(PO 3 H 2 ) 2 bpy) 2 Ru(4-Mebpy-4-bimpy)Rub(tpy)(OH 2 )] 4+ , which combines both light absorber and water oxidation catalyst in a single molecule, was attached to the TiO 2 shell. Visible photolysis of the resulting core-shell assembly structure with a Pt cathode resulted in water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen with an absorbed photon conversion efficiency of 4.4% at peak photocurrent.P hotosynthesis uses the energy of the sun with water as the reducing agent to drive the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates with oxygen as a coproduct through a remarkably complex process. At photosystem II, a subsystem imbedded in the thylakoid membrane where O 2 is produced, light absorption, energy migration, electron transfer, proton transfer, and catalysis are all used in multiple stepwise chemical reactions which are carefully orchestrated at the molecular level (1, 2).Photosynthesis solves the problem of energy storage by biomass production but with low solar efficiencies, typically <1%. In artificial photosynthesis with solar fuels production, the goal is similar but the targets are either hydrogen production from water splitting, Eq. 1, or reduction of carbon dioxide to a carbon-based fuel, Eq. 2 (3, 4). Different strategies for solar fuels have evolved (5, 6). In one, direct bandgap excitation of semiconductors creates electron-hole pairs which are then used to drive separate halfreactions for water oxidation (2H 2 O → O 2 + 4H + + 4e − ) and water/proton reduction (2H + + 2e − → H 2 ) (7-9).Here, we report a hybrid strategy for solar water splitting, the dye sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC). It combines the electron transport properties of semiconductor nanocrystalline thin films with molecular-level reactions (10). In this approach, a chromophore-catalyst molecular assembly acts as both light absorber and catalyst. It is bound to the surface of a "core-shell," nanostructured, transparent conducting oxide film. The core structure consists of a nanoparticle film of either tin-doped indium oxide (nanoITO), or antimony-doped tin oxide (nanoATO), deposited on a fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The shell consists of a conformal TiO 2 nanolayer applied by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The resulting "photoanode," where water oxidation occurs, is connected to a Pt cathode for proton reduction to complete the water splitting cell. A diagram for the photoanode in the DSPEC device is shown in Fig. 1. It illustrates...
In aqueous solution above pH 2.4 with 4% (vol/vol) CH 3 CN, the complex [Ru II (bda)(isoq) 2 ] (bda is 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylate; isoq is isoquinoline) exists as the open-arm chelate, [Ru II (CO 2 -bpy-CO 2 − )(isoq) 2 (NCCH 3 )], as shown by 1 H and 13 C-NMR, X-ray crystallography, and pH titrations. Rates of water oxidation with the open-arm chelate are remarkably enhanced by added proton acceptor bases, as measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In 1.0 M PO 4 3-, the calculated half-time for water oxidation is ∼7 μs. The key to the rate accelerations with added bases is direct involvement of the buffer base in either atom-proton transfer (APT) or concerted electron-proton transfer (EPT) pathways. [Mebimpy is 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy is 2,2′-bipyridine; Fig. 1], both in solution and on surfaces, reveal mechanisms in which stepwise oxidative activation of aqua precursors to Ru V =O is followed by rate-limiting O-O bond formation (10-15). The results of kinetic and mechanistic studies have revealed the importance of concerted atom-proton transfer (APT) in the O-O bond-forming step. In APT, the O-O bond forms in concert with H + transfer to water or to an added base (11,12,(16)(17)(18)(19). APT can promote dramatic rate enhancements. In a recent study on surface-bound [Ru(Mebimpy)(4,4′-((HO) 2 OPCH 2 ) 2 bpy)(OH 2 )] 2+ [4,4′-((HO) 2 OPCH 2 ) 2 bpy is 4,4′-bis-methlylenephosphonato-2,2′-bipyridine] stabilized by atomic layer deposition, a rate enhancement of ∼10 6 was observed with 0.012 M added PO 4 3− at pH 12 compared with oxidation at pH 1 (20).Sun and coworkers (21, 22) have described the Ru single-site water oxidation catalysts, [Ru II (bda)(L) 2 ] (H 2 bda is 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylic acid, HCO 2 -bpy-CO 2 H; L is isoquinoline, 4-picoline, or phthalazine). They undergo rapid and sustained water oxidation catalysis with added Ce IV . A mechanism has been proposed in which initial oxidation to seven coordinate Ru IV is followed by further oxidation to Ru V (O) with O-O coupling to give a peroxo-bridged intermediate, Ru IV O-ORu IV , which undergoes further oxidation and release of O 2 (21, 22). We report here the results of a rate and mechanistic study on electrochemical water oxidation by complex , [Ru II (CO 2 -bpy-CO 2 )(isoq) 2 ] (isoq is isoquinoline) (Fig. 1). Evidence is presented for water oxidation by a chelate open form in acidic solutions. The chelate open form displays dramatic rate enhancements with added buffer bases, and the results of a detailed mechanistic study are reported here. − /HPO 4 2− phosphate buffer, I = 0.5 M (NaClO 4 )] in 4% (vol/vol) CH 3 CN at a glassy carbon electrode (GC) (0.071 cm 2 ). The Ag/AgCl [3 M NaCl, 0.21 V vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE)] reference electrode was isolated with an electrolyte filled bridge to avoid chloride ion diffusion into the anode compartment. The sample was purged with argon to remove O 2 before each scan, with only O 2 freshly produced in oxidative scans detected on reverse scans at -0.3 V vs. NHE, a...
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