Avena sativa is the sixth most produced cereal in the world. It is widely used for human consumption. Due to the bromatological quality of its forage, it is used for direct grazing, hay and silage. Due to the large number of interesting characteristics of forage white oats, the selection of unique characteristics becomes difficult and expensive for breeders. In this sense, the use of analysis with multiple characteristics can facilitate the process. Therefore, the objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters of morphological characteristics, productivity, and quality of forages, as well as to define multiple characteristics that assist in the selection of promising white oat genotypes with forage profile through factor analysis. Field trials were carried out during the agricultural year of 2013 in the municipality of Capão do Leão, RS. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with treatments arranged in four replications. The treatments corresponded to the genotypes CHIARASUL (G1), FAEM006 (G2), BARBARASUL (G3), BRISASUL, (G4) CGF03006 (G5), CGF07023-1 (G6), CGF07-74 027-1 (G7), CGF07033 (G8), CGF07033-1 (G9), CGF07041 (G10), CGF0705-7 (G11), CGF07060-2 (G12) and CGF07060-3 (G13). The ©FUNPEC-RP www.funpecrp.com.br Genetics and Molecular Research 20 (2): gmr18451 T.C. da Rosa et al. 2 characteristics analyzed were: plant height, leaf area, weight of fresh plants, weight of dry plants, number of tillers and levels of nitrogen, crude protein, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese and iron. The data were submitted to the normality test and to various components of variance. Statistical analyses were performed using Selegen®, SAS® and Genes® software. The white oat genotypes expressed high genetic variability and possibility of selection for leaf area, fresh forage mass, dry forage mass, number of tillers and calcium content. Simultaneously the magnesium content with multiple traits + zinc content, dry matter + fresh mass, nitrogen content + calcium content, crude protein + potassium content and number of tillers, showing potential to select genotypes of interest for genetic improvement.
The objective of this work was to show which traits are influenced by the interaction genotype x irrigated environment, to reveal trends of linear associations in each environment and to identify genotypic variation through canonical variable analysis in maize. The experiment was conducted in Campos Borges – RS. The experimental design used was randomized blocks organized in a factorial scheme, being two cultivation environment (dry environment characterized only by the availability of rainwater; irrigated environment where a 15 mm layer of water was applied ten days apart the crop cycle, from seedling emergence to physiological maturity stage) x 13 hybrids of maize, arranged in three replicates. The traits plant height, insertion of ear height, mass of one thousand grains and grains yield are influenced by the genotypes x environments interaction. The irrigated environment presents superiority in relation to dry environment for all the traits studied. In general, the genotype G9 performs better than others. The irrigated environment presents superiority than dry environment, in relation to the traits plant height, insertion of ear height, mass of one thousand grains, grain yield per hectare, ear length, ear diameter, ear mass, grains mass per ear and number of grains per ear row.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the interference of physical, nutritional, sanitary, and genetic aspects in the quality of soybean seeds. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, using 55 soybean F6 genotypes, with 4 replications. In this study, thousand seeds mass, germinated seeds, accelerated aging, tetrazolium, phytosanitary indicators (Aspergillus flavus, Cercospora kikuchii, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium semisectum, and Bacteriosis), seed nutritional indicators (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese, zinc, sodium, and molybdenum). The physiological quality of the seeds is negatively affected by the health aspects of Cercospora kikuchii, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium semisectum and Bacteriosis. In addition, nutritional aspects also act negatively due to the presence of salts, and positively due to the levels of P. Likewise, Zn, Mo and K are correlated as strong indicators of seed vigor levels. The developed genotypes have excellent behavior towards pathogens and seed nutrition, contributing to high quality seed production.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) shows high phenotypic plasticity, acclimatization, wide adaptability, and resilience to adverse edaphoclimatic conditions. In this context, this systematic review aims to identify what were the factors that determined the production of cassava in Brazil in the last three decades, and to direct what are the possible perspectives of the crop in the country. The methodology to produce this review was based on studies that which integrate the academic information produced in different situations (1990-2020), environments, states, groups of researchers and existing scientific evidence for this theme. Based on the information, a binary matrix of information was assembled based on the following characters, plant density per hectare, soil type, city, state, average air temperature, planting line spacing, plant spacing on the planting line, implantation date, implantation station, harvesting station, productivity per hectare, days for harvest, liming, fertilization, precipitation and climate. It is evident that in the last 30 years the productivity of cassava in Brazil has been increased, mainly in low-income populations and those located in rural areas. There are prospects for increasing cassava production for fresh sale and industry. The crop is characterized as rustic, highly adaptive, tolerant of water stress and acidic soils, being highly influenced by the climate, rainfall, air temperature, and incident solar radiation. Productivity is determined by the time of implantation, liming, fertilization, density, and plant arrangement.
The climate unpredictability causes long periods of drought, becoming the main risk factor in soybeans production fields and consequent losses to farmers in Brazil and worldwide. As sessile organisms, plants are constantly challenged by a wide range of environmental stresses, including drought. Growth constraints and stress due to these environmental changes result in reduced yield and significant harvesting losses. The response to abiotic stresses is a very complex phenomenon, since several stages of plant development can be affected by a particular stress and often several stresses affect the plant simultaneously. In order to mitigate the damages caused by the climate, new soybean cultivars adapted to the drought and the diversified climate are necessary, as well as technological advances in the production of soybeans that must advance with the increase of cultivated area. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying tolerance and adaptation to stress have been the focus of intensive research. In this sense, the objective of this review is to provide an overview of the evolution of genetic improvement regarding the search for more drought-tolerant cultivars, as well as to verify which strategies are used in the genetic improvement of soybean in the search of these genotypes.
Nutrients have differences in their functions as metabolic and structural constituents in plant organs. The specific identification of the symptoms of excess or deficiency of nutrients is essential for the correct management to be carried out in order to avoid production losses. In this context, this research aimed to evaluate the symptoms of deficiency and excess of nutrients in soybean. The experiment was carried out on a bench, with 3-liter containers, in which uniformly germinated seedlings were selected for implantation. Initially, the seedlings were subjected to a complete nutrient solution to allow for a uniform and unrestricted initial development over a period of one week. Then, the plants were subjected to solutions with twice as much nutrient, absence of nutrients, complete solution and nutrient restriction, individual omissions resulted in morphological changes, which translated into visual symptoms characteristic of the nutritional deficiency of the respective nutrient. The solution with twice the nutrient concentration of the complete solution showed an increase in the absorption of N, Mg, K and Fe, for Cu it was twice the absorption and for Zn five times more. There was a decrease in the absorption of Ca and Mn and, with that, it is concluded that the availability of twice as many nutrients did not result in double their absorption.
The work aims to evaluate the effects of soil cover and soybean cultivars on the qualitative and quantitative attributes of soybeans. The experiment was conducted at Giruá, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized factorial block design, with two cover crops x seven soybean cultivars, disposed in three repetitions. Agricultural characteristics and nutritional attributes of soya were evaluated. The different coverings influenced the soybean performance for the main variables studied, grain yield was maximized in the coverage of Raphanus sativus + Avena strigosa for the cultivar DM 57I52 IPRO, and the greenish grain levels were lower, consequently increasing the percentage of oil content for that same coverage. The components of variance and genetic parameters show that grain yield was influenced by 56% due to the effects of cultivars and 44% coming from the type of soil cover used.
The increase in the world population, the need to increase food production, both in quantity and quality, becomes increasingly prominent. The objective of this work was to identify the canonical correlations between yield components, morphological characters, micronutrients, bioactive compounds and amino acids in corn. The experimental design used was a randomized block containing 11 treatments arranged in three replications. The treatments consisted of 11 Top Crosses hybrid genotypes, these being made through crosses directed between a narrow genetic base tester hybrid for specific combining ability with 11 S5 inbred lines. It is inferred that groups considered yield components, secondary traits, bioactive compounds, micronutrients and amino acids are dependent. Promising characters are identified for the corn breeding for high yields, nutritional and energetic quality of corn grains. The indirect selection of grains with additions in essential amino acids can be directed to plants with superiority in height, mass and width of grains, phenols, flavonoids, soluble solids and zinc content.
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