An F(2) population established by crossing a broiler male line and a layer line was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting abdominal fat weight, abdominal fat percentage and serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Two genetic models, the line-cross and the half-sib, were applied in the QTL analysis, both using the regression interval method. Three significant QTL and four suggestive QTL were mapped in the line-cross analysis and four significant and four suggestive QTL were mapped in the half-sib analysis. A total of five QTL were mapped for abdominal fat weight, six for abdominal fat percentage and four for triglyceride concentration in both analyses. New QTL associated with serum triglyceride concentration were mapped on GGA5, GGA23 and GG27. QTL mapped between markers LEI0029 and ADL0371 on GGA3 for abdominal fat percentage and abdominal fat weight and a suggestive QTL on GGA12 for abdominal fat percentage showed significant parent-of-origin effects. Some QTL mapped here match QTL regions mapped in previous studies using different populations, suggesting good candidate regions for fine-mapping and candidate gene searches.
An F2 experimental population, developed from a broiler layer cross, was used in a genome scan of QTL for percentage of carcass, carcass parts, shank and head. Up to 649 F2 chickens from four paternal half-sib families were genotyped with 128 genetic markers covering 22 linkage groups. Total map length was 2630 cM, covering approximately 63% of the genome. QTL interval mapping using regression methods was applied to line-cross and half-sib models. Under the line-cross model, 12 genome-wide significant QTL and 17 suggestive linkages for percentages of carcass parts, shank and head were mapped to 13 linkage groups (GGA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 18 and 27). Under the paternal half-sib model, six genome-wide significant QTL and 18 suggestive linkages for percentages of carcass parts, shank and head were detected on nine chicken linkage groups (GGA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 14, 15 and 27), seven of which seemed to corroborate positions revealed by the previous model. Overall, three novel QTL of importance to the broiler industry were mapped (one significant for shank% on GGA3 and two suggestive for carcass and breast percentages on GGA14 and drums and thighs percentage on GGA15). One novel QTL for wings% was mapped to GGA3, six novel QTL (GGA1, 3, 7, 8, 9 and 27) and suggestive linkages (GGA2, 4, and 5) were mapped for head%, and suggestive linkages were identified for back% on GGA2, 11 and 12. In addition, many of the QTL mapped in this study confirmed QTL previously reported in other populations.
Two functional and positional candidate genes were selected in a region of chicken chromosome 1 (GGA1), based on their biological roles, and also where several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped and associated with performance, fatness and carcass traits in chickens. The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene has been associated with several physiological functions related to growth. The lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5A (KDM5A) gene participates in the epigenetic regulation of genes involved with the cell cycle. Our objective was to find associations of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes with performance, fatness and carcass traits in 165 F2 chickens from a resource population. In the IGF1 gene, 17SNPs were detected, and in the KDM5A gene, nine SNPs were detected. IGF1 SNP c.47673G>A was associated with body weight and haematocrit percentage, and also with feed intake and percentages of abdominal fat and gizzard genotype × sex interactions. KDM5A SNP c.34208C>T genotype × sex interaction affected body weight, feed intake, percentages of abdominal fat (p=0.0001), carcass, gizzard and haematocrit. A strong association of the diplotype × sex interaction (p<0.0001) with abdominal fat was observed, and also associations with body weight, feed intake, percentages of carcass, drums and thighs, gizzard and haematocrit. Our findings suggest that the KDM5A gene might play an important role in the abdominal fat deposition in chickens. The IGF1 and KDM5A genes are strong candidates to explain the QTL mapped in this region of GGA1.
Chicken experimental populations have been developed worldwide for QTL mapping, but their genotypic characterizations are not usually discussed. The objective of this study was to characterize genotypically two F 1 reciprocal generations and their parental lines based on the estimation of genotypic parameters. These F 1 generations originated two Brazilian reference populations to map QTL. The evaluated parameters were polymorphic information content (PIC), observed and expected heterozygosities and number of alleles at microsatellite loci on chromosomes 1, 3 and 4. All parental and F 1 chickens from both populations were used totalling of 83 chickens: 14 from a broiler (TT) and 14 from a layer line (CC) and 55 from their reciprocal F 1 generations. The chicken lines and the resource populations were developed at the National Research Center for Swine and Poultry (EMBRAPA), Brazil. Genotypes from all animals were obtained from 34 loci on chromosomes 1 (13), 3 (12) and 4 (9). Based on the sampling, we found that the two lines exhibited a total of 163 different alleles, of which 31 (31.1%) and 44 (33.0%) alleles were unique in CC and TT lines, respectively, with allelic frequencies ranging from 0.03 to 0.82. The observed heterozygosity was higher (0.68-0.71) in both F 1 generations than in their founder lines due to linkage disequilibrium. Finally, the two chicken lines used as founders created two F 1 reciprocal generations with high levels of PIC (0.50-0.52) and observed heterozygosity, as well as satisfactory number of alleles per locus (4.06-4.32). Our results will allow to compare and select families with highly informative microsatellite markers for QTL studies, reducing genotyping costs.
RESUMO -Realizou-se o presente trabalho com o intuito de avaliar a influência do sistema de criação (intensivo e semi-intensivo) no desempenho (peso corporal e conversão alimentar), na condição fisiológica sob estresse térmico (temperatura retal, freqüência respiratória e hematócrito) e comportamento (freqüência ao pasto) de frangos de corte. Foram utilizadas quatro linhagens de frangos de corte, duas tipo caipira e duas comerciais. Para avaliação do desempenho e condição fisiológica das aves nas idades de 45, 55, 65 e 75 dias, instalou-se um experimento no qual as aves foram alojadas em boxes constituídos de 4,5 m 2 de área interna (abrigo) e 35 m 2 de área de pastejo com lotação de 35 aves/box. Outro experimento foi instalado para avaliação da freqüência das aves ao pasto entre o 35 o e 75 o dia de idade. Uma das linhagens avaliadas não demonstrou ser adaptada ao sistema semi-intensivo de criação. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas nos parâmetros de desempenho e de condição fisiológica das aves nos dois sistemas. Na criação semi-intensiva obtiveramse menores valores para temperatura retal, taxa respiratória e hematócrito e melhores valores de peso corporal e conversão alimentar. Concluiu-se que a criação semi-intensiva proporcionou condições que aumentaram o bem-estar das aves, tendo influenciado positivamente o desempenho e a condição fisiológica das linhagens avaliadas, mesmo sob condições de estresse térmico.Palavras-chave: adaptação, bem-estar, comportamento, sistema semi-intensivo Influence of the Rearing System on Performance, Physiological Condition and Behaviour of Broilers LinesABSTRACT -The objectives of this research were to evaluate the influence of rearing systems (intensive or semi-intensive) on the performance (body weight and feed efficiency), chicken physiological condition under heat stress (rectal temperature, respiratory frequency and hematocrit) and behavioural parameters (frequency in the pasture areas) of broilers lines. To evaluate broiler's performance and physiological condition on the ages of 45, 55, 65 and 75 days one experiment was carried out in boxes with 4,5 m 2 of inside area and 35 m 2 of outside area were 35 broilers were reared in each box. Another experiment was carried out to evaluate the frequency of broilers it the pasture areas from 35 to 75 days of age. One of the evaluated lines did not show adaptation to the semi-intensive rearing system. Significant differences were found in broilers performance and physiological conditions in both systems. In the semi-intensive rearing system the rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, hematocrit and feed efficiency were smaller and body weight larger than in the intensive rearing system. It was concluded that the semi-intensive rearing system provided conditions that increased broilers welfare and positively influenced the physiological conditions and performance of the broilers.
Objetivou-se simular, em câmara climática, a condição ambiental de estresse térmico durante o transporte de aves até o abatedouro para avaliação da influência do estresse térmico sobre parâmetros fisiológicos e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte. Trinta frangos machos com 42 dias de idade foram pesados, alocados em caixas de transporte (10 aves/caixa) e submetidos a condição de alto estresse térmico (35ºC e 85% UR) para simular o transporte até o abatedouro. A cada tempo de exposição às condições de estresse (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 minutos), foram retiradas duas aves de cada caixa para análises posteriores. Foram mensurados o peso corporal, a temperatura retal, a freqüência respiratória e o hematócrito e, em seguida, as aves foram abatidas para avaliação das características de carcaça (pesos da carcaça eviscerada, do peito, das pernas (coxa e sobrecoxa), do dorso e das vísceras). As características fisiológicas e de carcaça (perda de peso corporal e pesos de pernas, asas e dorso) diferiram após a exposição das aves à condição de alto estresse. O tempo de exposição e a condição ambiental de transporte afetaram negativamente o metabolismo e o equilíbrio térmico corporal das aves.
The mechanisms involved in the control of growth in chickens are too complex to be explained only under univariate analysis because all related traits are biologically correlated. Therefore, we evaluated broiler chicken performance under a multivariate approach, using the canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 1920 chicks from eight treatments, defined as the combination of four broiler chicken strains (Arbor Acres, AgRoss 308, Cobb 500 and RX) from both sexes, were housed in 48 pens. Average feed intake, average live weight, feed conversion and carcass, breast and leg weights were obtained for days 1 to 42. Canonical discriminant analysis was implemented by SAS R CANDISC procedure and differences between treatments were obtained by the F-test (P , 0.05) over the squared Mahalanobis' distances. Multivariate performance from all treatments could be easily visualised because one graph was obtained from two first canonical variables, which explained 96.49% of total variation, using a SAS R CONELIP macro. A clear distinction between sexes was found, where males were better than females. Also between strains, Arbor Acres, AgRoss 308 and Cobb 500 (commercial) were better than RX (experimental). Evaluation of broiler chicken performance was facilitated by the fact that the six original traits were reduced to only two canonical variables. Average live weight and carcass weight (first canonical variable) were the most important traits to discriminate treatments. The contrast between average feed intake and average live weight plus feed conversion (second canonical variable) were used to classify them. We suggest analysing performance data sets using canonical discriminant analysis.
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