BackgroundHigh density (HD) SNP genotyping arrays are an important tool for genetic analyses of animals and plants. Although the chicken is one of the most important farm animals, no HD array is yet available for high resolution genetic analysis of this species.ResultsWe report here the development of a 600 K Affymetrix® Axiom® HD genotyping array designed using SNPs segregating in a wide variety of chicken populations. In order to generate a large catalogue of segregating SNPs, we re-sequenced 243 chickens from 24 chicken lines derived from diverse sources (experimental, commercial broiler and layer lines) by pooling 10–15 samples within each line. About 139 million (M) putative SNPs were detected by mapping sequence reads to the new reference genome (Gallus_gallus_4.0) of which ~78 M appeared to be segregating in different lines. Using criteria such as high SNP-quality score, acceptable design scores predicting high conversion performance in the final array and uniformity of distribution across the genome, we selected ~1.8 M SNPs for validation through genotyping on an independent set of samples (n = 282). About 64% of the SNPs were polymorphic with high call rates (>98%), good cluster separation and stable Mendelian inheritance. Polymorphic SNPs were further analysed for their population characteristics and genomic effects. SNPs with extreme breach of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.00001) were excluded from the panel. The final array, designed on the basis of these analyses, consists of 580,954 SNPs and includes 21,534 coding variants. SNPs were selected to achieve an essentially uniform distribution based on genetic map distance for both broiler and layer lines. Due to a lower extent of LD in broilers compared to layers, as reported in previous studies, the ratio of broiler and layer SNPs in the array was kept as 3:2. The final panel was shown to genotype a wide range of samples including broilers and layers with over 100 K to 450 K informative SNPs per line. A principal component analysis was used to demonstrate the ability of the array to detect the expected population structure which is an important pre-investigation step for many genome-wide analyses.ConclusionsThis Affymetrix® Axiom® array is the first SNP genotyping array for chicken that has been made commercially available to the public as a product. This array is expected to find widespread usage both in research and commercial application such as in genomic selection, genome-wide association studies, selection signature analyses, fine mapping of QTLs and detection of copy number variants.
Growing evidence indicates that small, secreted peptides (SSPs) play critical roles in legume growth and development, yet the annotation of SSP-coding genes is far from complete. Systematic reannotation of the Medicago truncatula genome identified 1,970 homologs of established SSP gene families and an additional 2,455 genes that are potentially novel SSPs, previously unreported in the literature. The expression patterns of known and putative SSP genes based on 144 RNA sequencing data sets covering various stages of macronutrient deficiencies and symbiotic interactions with rhizobia and mycorrhiza were investigated. Focusing on those known or suspected to act via receptor-mediated signaling, 240 nutrient-responsive and 365 nodulation-responsive Signaling-SSPs were identified, greatly expanding the number of SSP gene families potentially involved in acclimation to nutrient deficiencies and nodulation. Synthetic peptide applications were shown to alter root growth and nodulation phenotypes, revealing additional regulators of legume nutrient acquisition. Our results constitute a powerful resource enabling further investigations of specific SSP functions via peptide treatment and reverse genetics.
An F(2) resource population, derived from a broiler x layer cross, was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body weights at days 1, 35 and 41, weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency from 35 to 41 days and intestinal length. Up to 577 F(2) chickens were genotyped with 103 genetic markers covering 21 linkage groups. A preliminary QTL mapping report using this same population focused exclusively on GGA1. Regression methods were applied to line-cross and half-sib models for QTL interval mapping. Under the line-cross model, eight QTL were detected for body weight at 35 days (GGA2, 3 and 4), body weight at 41 days (GGA2, 3, 4 and 10) and intestine length (GGA4). Under the half-sib model, using sire as common parent, five QTL were detected for body weight at day 1 (GGA3 and 18), body weight at 35 days (GGA2 and 3) and body weight at 41 days (GGA3). When dam was used as common parent, seven QTL were mapped for body weight at day 1 (GGA2), body weight at day 35 (GGA2, 3 and 4) and body weight at day 41 (GGA2, 3 and 4). Growth differences in chicken lines appear to be controlled by a chronological change in a limited number of chromosomal regions.
An F(2) population established by crossing a broiler male line and a layer line was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting abdominal fat weight, abdominal fat percentage and serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Two genetic models, the line-cross and the half-sib, were applied in the QTL analysis, both using the regression interval method. Three significant QTL and four suggestive QTL were mapped in the line-cross analysis and four significant and four suggestive QTL were mapped in the half-sib analysis. A total of five QTL were mapped for abdominal fat weight, six for abdominal fat percentage and four for triglyceride concentration in both analyses. New QTL associated with serum triglyceride concentration were mapped on GGA5, GGA23 and GG27. QTL mapped between markers LEI0029 and ADL0371 on GGA3 for abdominal fat percentage and abdominal fat weight and a suggestive QTL on GGA12 for abdominal fat percentage showed significant parent-of-origin effects. Some QTL mapped here match QTL regions mapped in previous studies using different populations, suggesting good candidate regions for fine-mapping and candidate gene searches.
Chicken genotyping is becoming common practice in conventional animal breeding improvement. Despite the power of high-throughput methods for genotyping, their high cost limits large scale use in animal breeding and selection. In the present paper we optimized the CornellGBS, an efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequence approach developed in plants, for its application in chickens. Here we describe the successful genotyping of a large number of chickens (462) using CornellGBS approach. Genomic DNA was cleaved with the PstI enzyme, ligated to adapters with barcodes identifying individual animals, and then sequenced on Illumina platform. After filtering parameters were applied, 134,528 SNPs were identified in our experimental population of chickens. Of these SNPs, 67,096 had a minimum taxon call rate of 90% and were considered ‘unique tags’. Interestingly, 20.7% of these unique tags have not been previously reported in the dbSNP. Moreover, 92.6% of these SNPs were concordant with a previous Whole Chicken-genome re-sequencing dataset used for validation purposes. The application of CornellGBS in chickens showed high performance to infer SNPs, particularly in exonic regions and microchromosomes. This approach represents a cost-effective (~US$50/sample) and powerful alternative to current genotyping methods, which has the potential to improve whole-genome selection (WGS), and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chicken production.
Next-generation sequencing has prompted a surge of discovery of millions of genetic variants from vertebrate genomes. Besides applications in genetic association and linkage studies, a fraction of these variants will have functional consequences. This study describes detection and characterization of 15 million SNPs from chicken genome with the goal to predict variants with potential functional implications (pfVars) from both coding and non-coding regions. The study reports: 183K amino acid-altering SNPs of which 48% predicted as evolutionary intolerant, 13K splicing variants, 51K likely to alter RNA secondary structures, 500K within most conserved elements and 3K from non-coding RNAs. Regions of local fixation within commercial broiler and layer lines were investigated as potential selective sweeps using genome-wide SNP data. Relationships with phenotypes, if any, of the pfVars were explored by overlaying the sweep regions with known QTLs. Based on this, the candidate genes and/or causal mutations for a number of important traits are discussed. Although the fixed variants within sweep regions were enriched with non-coding SNPs, some non-synonymous-intolerant mutations reached fixation, suggesting their possible adaptive advantage. The results presented in this study are expected to have important implications for future genomic research to identify candidate causal mutations and in poultry breeding.
An F2 experimental population, developed from a broiler layer cross, was used in a genome scan of QTL for percentage of carcass, carcass parts, shank and head. Up to 649 F2 chickens from four paternal half-sib families were genotyped with 128 genetic markers covering 22 linkage groups. Total map length was 2630 cM, covering approximately 63% of the genome. QTL interval mapping using regression methods was applied to line-cross and half-sib models. Under the line-cross model, 12 genome-wide significant QTL and 17 suggestive linkages for percentages of carcass parts, shank and head were mapped to 13 linkage groups (GGA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 18 and 27). Under the paternal half-sib model, six genome-wide significant QTL and 18 suggestive linkages for percentages of carcass parts, shank and head were detected on nine chicken linkage groups (GGA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 14, 15 and 27), seven of which seemed to corroborate positions revealed by the previous model. Overall, three novel QTL of importance to the broiler industry were mapped (one significant for shank% on GGA3 and two suggestive for carcass and breast percentages on GGA14 and drums and thighs percentage on GGA15). One novel QTL for wings% was mapped to GGA3, six novel QTL (GGA1, 3, 7, 8, 9 and 27) and suggestive linkages (GGA2, 4, and 5) were mapped for head%, and suggestive linkages were identified for back% on GGA2, 11 and 12. In addition, many of the QTL mapped in this study confirmed QTL previously reported in other populations.
BackgroundExcess fat content in chickens has a negative impact on poultry production. The discovery of QTL associated with fat deposition in the carcass allows the identification of positional candidate genes (PCGs) that might regulate fat deposition and be useful for selection against excess fat content in chicken’s carcass. This study aimed to estimate genomic heritability coefficients and to identify QTLs and PCGs for abdominal fat (ABF) and skin (SKIN) traits in a broiler chicken population, originated from the White Plymouth Rock and White Cornish breeds.ResultsABF and SKIN are moderately heritable traits in our broiler population with estimates ranging from 0.23 to 0.33. Using a high density SNP panel (355,027 informative SNPs), we detected nine unique QTLs that were associated with these fat traits. Among these, four QTL were novel, while five have been previously reported in the literature. Thirteen PCGs were identified that might regulate fat deposition in these QTL regions: JDP2, PLCG1, HNF4A, FITM2, ADIPOR1, PTPN11, MVK, APOA1, APOA4, APOA5, ENSGALG00000000477, ENSGALG00000000483, and ENSGALG00000005043. We used sequence information from founder animals to detect 4843 SNPs in the 13 PCGs. Among those, two were classified as potentially deleterious and two as high impact SNPs.ConclusionsThis study generated novel results that can contribute to a better understanding of fat deposition in chickens. The use of high density array of SNPs increases genome coverage and improves QTL resolution than would have been achieved with low density. The identified PCGs were involved in many biological processes that regulate lipid storage. The SNPs identified in the PCGs, especially those predicted as potentially deleterious and high impact, may affect fat deposition. Validation should be undertaken before using these SNPs for selection against carcass fat accumulation and to improve feed efficiency in broiler chicken production.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12864-018-4779-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.