Antimicrobial resistance among enteric organisms in food animals varied among countries, particularly for older antimicrobials, but resistance to newer compounds used to treat disease in humans was generally low.
High-level fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT204 has been previously shown to be essentially due to both multiple target gene mutations and active efflux by the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. In this study we show that in intermediatly resistant acrB-inactivated serovar Typhimurium DT204 mutants, high-level resistance to FQs can be restored on in vitro selection with FQs. In each FQ-resistant mutant selected from serovar Typhimurium DT204 acrB mutant strains, an insertion sequence (IS1 or IS10) was found integrated upstream of the acrEF operon, coding for AcrEF, an efflux pump highly homologous to AcrAB. In one of the strains, transposition of IS1 caused partial deletion of acrS, the putative local repressor gene of the acrEF operon. Sequence analysis showed that both IS1 and IS10 elements contain putative promoter sequences that might alter the expression of adjacent acrEF genes. Indeed, reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed an 8-to 10-fold increase in expression of acrF in these insertional mutants, relative to their respective parental strain, which correlated well with the resistance levels observed to FQs and other unrelated drugs. It is noteworthy that AcrEF did not contribute to the intrinsic drug resistance of serovar Typhimurium, since acrF deletion in wild-type strains did not result in any increase in drug susceptibility. Moreover, deletion of acrS did not cause any acrF overexpression or any decrease in drug susceptibility, suggesting that acrEF overexpression is mediated solely by the IS1 and IS10 promoter sequences and not by inactivity of AcrS. Southern blot experiments showed that the number of chromosomal IS1 and IS10 elements in the serovar Typhimurium DT204 genome was about 5 and 15 respectively. None were detected in epidemic serovar Typhimurium DT104 strains or in the serovar Typhimurium reference strain LT2. Carrying IS1 and/or IS10 elements in their chromosome may thus be a selective advantage for serovar Typhimurium DT204 strains as opposed to DT104 strains for which no high-level FQ resistance nor insertional mutations were found. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that the IS1-or IS10-activated AcrEF efflux pump may relay AcrAB in serovar Typhimurium, and underline the importance of transposable elements in the acquisition of FQ and multidrug resistance.
Antimicrobial resistance among enteric organisms in food animals varied among countries, particularly for older antimicrobials, but clinical resistance to essential compounds used to treat disease in humans was generally zero or low. In the absence of clinical resistance to newer compounds in E. coli and Salmonella, the apparent decreased susceptibility should be monitored carefully.
Resistance patterns varied widely depending on bacterial species, antibiotics, hosts and region. Resistance varied among countries, particularly for older antimicrobials, but clinical resistance to newer antibiotics used to treat foodborne disease in humans was generally very low. In the absence of resistance to newer compounds in E. coli and Salmonella, the apparent decreased susceptibility should be monitored.
The plasma and milk pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial compound, were evaluated in dairy cows, as well as its pharmacodynamic characteristics against mastitis-isolated pathogens. Marbofloxacin was given intramuscularly as a 10% aqueous solution to dairy cows either at a single dose or at repeated doses of 2 mg/kg once daily for 3 d. Blood and milk samples were collected for the determination of the concentration of marbofloxacin and of its putative metabolites: N-desmethyl-marbofloxacin and N-oxide-marbofloxacin. Bacterial field isolates were from milk samples collected from dairy cows suspected of having an intramammary infection. After identification, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against the isolated strains. The maximal marbofloxacin concentration (Cmax) observed in milk after the first administration was 1.024 microg/mL, and the area under the curve during the first dosing interval was 6.513 microg/h per milliliter. After the third administration, these parameters were slightly increased (about 20% at most). Both metabolites were detected in the milk, but their concentrations were below the limit of quantification. The MIC against 90% of the population (MIC90) of Escherichia coli was 0.016 microg/mL, and it was 0.229 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. The following surrogate clinical outcome markers were obtained against E. coli strains: a Cmax/MIC ratio of 67 and an area under the curve/MIC ratio of 407 h. Hence, a possible efficacy of marbofloxacin in the treatment of E. coli-induced mastitis could be expected as the endpoints of 10 and 250 h, respectively, are reached.
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