The existence of gas-phase ammonia (NH 3 ) in the atmosphere and its interaction with other trace chemical species could have a substantial impact on tropospheric chemistry and global climate change. China is a large agricultural country with an enormous animal population, tremendous nitrogen fertilizer consumption and, consequently, a large emission of NH 3 . Despite the importance of NH 3 in the global nitrogen (N) cycle, considerable inaccuracies and uncertainty exist regarding its emission in China. In this study, a comprehensive NH 3 emission inventory was compiled for China on a 1 km Â 1 km grid, which is suitable for input to atmospheric models. We attempted to estimate NH 3 emissions accurately by taking into consideration as many native experiment results as possible and parameterizing the emission factors (EFs) by the ambient temperature, soil acidity and other factors. The total NH 3 emission in China was approximately 9.8 Tg in 2006. The emission sources considered included livestock excreta (5.3 Tg), fertilizer application (3.2 Tg), agricultural soil (0.2 Tg), nitrogen-fixing plants (0.05 Tg), crop residue compost (0.3 Tg), biomass burning (0.1 Tg), urine from rural populations (0.2 Tg), chemical industry (0.2 Tg), waste disposal (0.1 Tg) and traffic (0.1 Tg). The regions with the highest emission rates are located in Central and Southwest China. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur in spring and summer.
The new type of pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has been declared as a global public health concern by WHO. As of April 3, 2020, more than 1,000,000 human infections have been diagnosed around the world, which exhibited apparent person-to-person transmission characteristics of this virus. The capacity of vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial recently. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is now confirmed as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and plays essential roles in human infection and transmission. In present study, we collected the online available single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data to evaluate the cell specific expression of ACE2 in maternal-fetal interface as well as in multiple fetal organs. Our results revealed that ACE2 was highly expressed in maternal-fetal interface cells including stromal cells and perivascular cells of decidua, and cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast in placenta. Meanwhile, ACE2 was also expressed in specific cell types of human fetal heart, liver and lung, but not in kidney. And in a study containing series fetal and post-natal mouse lung, we observed ACE2 was dynamically changed over the time, and ACE2 was extremely high in neonatal mice at post-natal day 1~3. In summary, this study revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor was widely spread in specific cell types of maternal-fetal interface and fetal organs. And thus, both the vertical transmission and the placenta dysfunction/abortion caused by SARS-CoV-2 need to be further carefully investigated in clinical practice.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common cellular stress response that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb cellular homeostasis, and induces cell apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis induced by ER stress. There are common upstream signaling pathways between autophagy and apoptosis induced by ER stress, including PERK/ATF4, IRE1α, ATF6, and Ca . Autophagy can not only block the induction of apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury, but also help to induce apoptosis. In addition, the activation of apoptosis-related proteins can also inhibit autophagy by degrading autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin-1, Atg4D, Atg3, and Atg5. Although the interactions of different autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins, and also common upstream signaling pathways have been found, the potential regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. In this review, we summarize the dual role of autophagy, and the interplay and potential regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and apoptosis under ER stress condition.
This work reports on a passive double spiral microfluidic device allowing rapid and label-free tumor cell separation and enrichment from diluted peripheral whole blood, by exploiting the size-dependent hydrodynamic forces. A numerical model is developed to simulate the Dean flow inside the curved geometry and to track the particle/cell trajectories, which is validated against the experimental observations and serves as a theoretical foundation for optimizing the operating conditions. Results from separating tumor cells (MCF-7 and Hela) spiked into whole blood indicate that 92.28% of blood cells and 96.77% of tumor cells are collected at the inner and the middle outlet, respectively, with 88.5% tumor recovery rate at a throughput of 3.33 6 10 7 cells min
21. We expect that this label-free microfluidic platform, driven by purely hydrodynamic forces, would have an impact on fundamental and clinical studies of circulating tumor cells.
All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) composed of conjugated polymers as both donor and acceptor components in bulk heterojunction photoactive layers have attracted increasing attention. However, it is a big challenge to achieve optimal morphology in polymer:polymer blends. In response, we report herein a new strategy to adjust the nanoscale organization for all-PSCs. Specifically, side chain engineering of the well-known naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based polymer N2200 is modulated by introducing a fraction of linear oligoethylene oxide (OE) side chains to replace branched alkyl chains on the NDI units and by synthesizing a series of NDI-based polymer acceptors NOE x, where x is the percentage of OE chain substituted NDI units relative to total NDI units. Compared to the reference polymer NOE0, OE-chain-containing polymer NOE10 offers a much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.1% with a record high fill factor (FF) of 0.75 in all-PSCs. Moreover, the NOE10-based all-PSC exhibits excellent long-term and thermal stabilities with >97% of the initial PCE being maintained after 300 h of aging at 65 °C. This work demonstrates an effective morphology optimization strategy to achieve highly efficient and stable all-PSCs and shows the excellent potential of NOE10 as an alternative to commercially available acceptor polymers N2200.
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