INTRODUÇÃO: Religiosidade/espiritualidade e saúde mental parecem positivamente associadas. O estudo examina associações entre bem-estar espiritual e distúrbios psiquiátricos menores em estudantes de Psicologia. MÉTODOS: Uma escala de bem-estar espiritual, o Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) e informações sociodemográficas foram utilizadas na totalidade (n = 351) dos alunos de Psicologia da Universidade Católica de Pelotas (RS), no ano de 2002. Foram comparados os escores atuais com os dos alunos de Direito e Medicina da mesma universidade em 2001 (n = 464). RESULTADOS: 84,6% dos alunos de Psicologia apresentaram espiritualidade negativa, comparados a 68,8% dos acadêmicos de Medicina e 68,5% de Direito (p DISCUSSÃO: Os achados coincidem com a experiência internacional. É preocupante que estudantes de Psicologia se mostrem mais distantes de questões espirituais/religiosas, levando em conta a associação espiritualidade/saúde-enfermidade. CONCLUSÃO: A religiosidade/espiritualidade se mostrou como fator inversamente associado a transtornos psiquiátricos menores em estudantes de Psicologia.
Visually evoked potentials to patterned stimuli were recorded from tennis players, rowers and non-athlete control subjects. Each group consisted of 12 males and 12 females of similar age. Tennis players showed shorter P100 latencies compared to those of control subjects and rowers. This difference exists, in the same range, both in the male and in the females. The analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions show that these shorter latencies cannot be explained by head circumference or by height. The hypothesis of a relationship between these shorter latencies and the specific qualities of racket players is suggested. A second experiment with squash players seems to confirm these first results.
A variety of new psychotherapy modalities has arisen in which the contact between patient and therapist takes place via the internet. The main objective of this systematic review is to investigate the types of online psychotherapy (OP) conducted nowadays, and to describe their main characteristics to psychodynamic psychotherapists who may wish to better understand the current scientific literature on the subject. The review used two databases, EMBASE and PsycINFO. Fifty-nine studies were retrieved and the main online psychotherapy modalities identified were self-therapy programmes using contact via email or chat; videoconference; and therapy exclusively via chat or email. The result of these studies suggests that OP is more effective than a waiting list control group. When compared with face-to-face therapies, OP showed similar effects. Most studies involved cognitive behavioural therapy; only two studies involved a form of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Different forms of communication allow patient and therapist to establish different relationships and therapeutic possibilities. OPs may be feasible treatment alternatives; however, it remains unclear, especially in relation to psychodynamic treatments, if therapeutic technique in OP, which involves changes in comparison with face-to-face therapies, would be useful in severe cases. Psychodynamic psychotherapists should adopt a posture of constant reflection on the changes taking place in the world and their impact on the minds of individuals, without, nevertheless, idealizing the 'new'. the therapist's location. Many people with mental health disorders fail to seek assistance or cannot afford to visit a doctor's office or mental healthcare centre, and the internet offers access to different therapeutic interventions.These studies throw light on the phenomenon, but online psychotherapies are considered new treatment modalities and are a rapidly expanding field. Most of the data presented in the aforementioned studies are contradictory and inconclusive. Systematic reviews on the subject assist the clinician and the researcher in knowing the state of the art on the subject and in positioning themselves more critically in terms of incorporating online treatment modalities in their practices. For psychodynamic psychotherapy in particular, it is necessary to critically discuss the effect of these technologies on the pillars of this theoretical approach, such as transference, countertransference and the analytic field. These concepts constitute the basis of psychodynamic practice and may be profoundly affected by a virtual relationship (Sfoggia et al., 2014). Therefore, we need to keep questioning the impact of online treatments in a psychodynamic psychotherapy setting.The main objective of this systematic review was to investigate the types of OP conducted nowadays, and to describe their main characteristics to psychodynamic psychotherapists who may wish to better understand the current scientific literature on the subject. The secondary objective was to describe the mai...
In this age of unprecedented expansion of media and information dissemination and sharing, the use of electronic means should be reconsidered. The use of new technologies should be studied to understand how it may affect the relationship between patient and therapist during psychotherapy or psychoanalytic treatments. This study offers a critical discussion of the effect of technologies on clinical practice, and vignettes are used to describe their impact on frame, anonymity, abstinence and therapeutic neutrality. Transfer and countertransference issues resulting from these changes are also discussed. The potential benefits of new technologies in psychotherapy are appreciated, but the authors draw attention to the need to reflect about the presence of the therapist in those technologies and the preservation of the therapeutic setting, so that a satisfactory progression of the work of the dyad is ensured. This study also discusses the use of technologies in the expansion of learning and application of the therapeutic technique to overcome geographic and time barriers, among others.
Child psychotherapy theory and practice are not absolutely coincident. Real psychotherapy sessions do not necessarily resemble the ideal prototypes.
Non smoking, male professional firemen-divers (n = 20) underwent two pulmonary function tests (PFT) separated by 8-9 years. Measured data were compared to European Coal Steel Community recommended reference values to permit cross-sectional and then longitudinal studies. Higher vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; both P < 0.001), and lower residual volume (P < 0.01) were observed in both PFT. Longitudinal analysis showed a smaller VC reduction than FEV1 reduction, leading to a FEV1/VC percentage decrease with time. Maximal mid expiratory flow (MMEF) and MMEF/VC changes during this 9-year period showed an unusually pronounced decrease, suggesting possible chronic effects of diving on small airways. Thus, it is suggested from our observations that a hyperbaric stimulus compensates in part for the effects of aging on VC and that obstructive disease could occur in subjects with long diving experience.
ResumoIntrodução: As altas taxas de abandono em psicoterapia e a lacuna na literatura sobre abandono de tratamento na psicoterapia de crianças justifi cam a realização de pesquisas com esse foco. A literatura aponta que algumas variáveis sociodemográfi cas e clínicas poderiam predizer o desfecho da psicoterapia. O presente estudo objetivou verifi car preditores de abandono de tratamento na psicoterapia psicanalítica de crianças na amostra pesquisada. Método: Trata-se de um estudo documental, retrospectivo, com os prontuários de duas instituições de atendimento psicológico a crianças em Porto Alegre. Resultados: Foram pesquisados prontuários de 2.106 crianças. Dessas, 200 tiveram alta e 793 abandonaram seus atendimentos. Os grupos foram comparados, e os resultados indicam que meninos apresentam mais risco de abandonar o tratamento; já crianças encaminhadas por neurologistas ou por psicólogos apresentam menos risco de abandono. Após o sexto mês de atendimento, o risco de abandono decai consideravelmente. Discussão: Os resultados são discutidos à luz da literatura sobre gênero, abandono de tratamento e crianças em psicoterapia. Algumas hipóteses são levantadas para as associações e não-associações encontradas neste estudo. Conclusões: Conhecer preditores de abandono em psicoterapia possibilita aos terapeutas identifi car precocemente pacientes pertencentes ao grupo de risco para abandono, oportunizando-lhes trabalhar preventivamente e mais diretamente aspectos de resistência e transferência negativa desses pacientes e seus familiares, principalmente nos primeiros 6 meses de tratamento. Criar técnicas de intervenção precoce com os pais de tais crianças e realizar tratamentos transdisciplinares também são saídas possíveis para evitar o abandono. Descritores: Abandono, psicoterapia psicanalítica, crianças. AbstractIntroduction: The high rates of dropout in psychotherapy and the shortage of studies on treatment dropout in child psychotherapy are strong reasons for further research on this topic. The literature suggests that some sociodemographic and clinical variables could predict psychotherapy outcome. The objective of the present study was to identify predictors of treatment dropout in child psychotherapy. Methods: This is a retrospective study involving the analysis of medical records of two institutions that provide psychological care to children in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Results: We analyzed the medical records of 2,106 children. Of these, 200 children were discharged from treatment and 793 dropped out. The two groups were compared, and the results suggest that boys have higher risk of dropping out, while children referred by neurologists or psychologists are at a lower risk of dropping out. After six months of treatment, the dropout risk is considerably reduced. Discussion: The results are discussed based on the literature on gender, treatment dropout and child psychotherapy. Some hypotheses were proposed to explain the associations and lack of associations found in the present study. Conclusions: Knowing pre...
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