Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a challenge for the veterinary practitioner since its etiology and treatments are still undefined. The present paper investigated the role of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in the severity of the FCGS. Oral mucosal biopsies obtained from 19 cats with FCGS were divided into two groups according to their FIV serology status. Later, the clinical lesion score was correlated with the histopathological grade of FCGS lesions and the degree of immunostaining in both groups. Most of the animals had significant histological changes; however, no correlation with FIV immunostaining intensity was observed. It was concluded that the presence of FIV infection or the animal’s seropositivity status does not seem to interfere with the severity of clinical signs nor the degree of histopathological changes when compared to the seronegative group.
Background: Biliary tumors have low incidence in cats and are more common in elderly animals. Hepatobiliary tumors have different classifications and their etiology is difficult to interpret. In most cases, the diagnosis is only possible in advanced stages, which clouds the precursor factors. The late diagnosis is explained by the absence or specificity of clinical manifestations and laboratory changes. The majority of hepatobiliary neoplasms in cats are incidental findings in surgeries or necropsies. This study aimed to report clinical, laboratory, pathological and immunohistochemical results in a feline case of gall bladder adenocarcinoma.Case: A cat, male, neutered, mixed breed, 4 years, was admitted at a veterinary clinic with a history of polyuria / polydipsia, anorexia, apathy, jaundice and emesis for 60 days. The animal had been treated in another clinic with silymarin, famotidine and cyanocobalamin, and fed by esophageal tube based on the presumptive clinical diagnosis of cholangitis. The clinical examination revealed jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, enlargement of the liver and gallbladder and the presence of a structure in the epigastric region. Based on clinical signs, blood tests (complete blood count and liver enzymes), abdominal ultrasound and thoracic radiography were requested. In the exam results, eosinophilia, bilirubinemia and increased alkaline phosphatase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and gamma glutamyl transferase were observed, in addition to the presence of icteric and hemolyzed serum. Ultrasound exam revealed thickened and dilated cystic and common ducts, large and thick gallbladder, bile with bile mud, hypoechogenic liver, thickening in the duodenal papilla and enlarged pancreatic and duodenal lymph nodes. There were no alterations in thoracic radiography. Based on the findings, the diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary obstruction was suggested. In celiotomy, dilated gallbladder with a thick blackened wall was observed. Bile puncture was performed for analysis, and total cholecystectomy and removal of obstructive content was performed. The patient suffered cardiorespiratory arrest after the procedure. A fragment of gallbladder and liver were sent to evaluation with histopathology and immunohistochemistry, and results were compatible with gallbladder adenocarcinoma.Discussion: Hepatobiliary neoplasms in cats are uncommon, apart from lymphoma. The incidence is higher in elderly cats and in males, which did not match the animal in this case. The clinical presentation of the condition is quite nonspecific, corroborating with other reports, in which changes are often only evident in advanced stages of the disease. Laboratory and imaging findings pointed to a biliary tree disorder, and cholangitis was suggested. However, the lack of clinical improvement and examination findings of exams lead to an exploratory laparotomy for better inspection of the organs and identification of possible causes. One of the differential diagnoses that should be considered in cats with extrahepatic biliary obstruction is gallbladder adenocarcinoma, especially in animals with an unsatisfactory response in clinical treatment. Tests such as histopathology and immunohistochemistry are essential for the definitive diagnosis of this neoplasm. Surgical resection is indicated in cases of malignant masses, providing longevity and better quality of life. Hypotension is a common complication in hepatobiliary surgeries, which can result in death.
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) are important etiologic agents of immunosuppressive diseases in felines. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of these retroviruses in domestic cats in Fortaleza, Ceará and the epidemiological factors associated with these infections. Between 2015 and 2016, 138 blood samples were collected and tested for FIV and FeLV by the enzyme immunoadsorption assay (ELISA). Parameters such as breed, gender, age, reproductive status, multi-cat environment, outdoor access and clinical manifestations were evaluated. The results showed that 12.32% were positive for FIV, 5.80% for FeLV and 1.45% for co-infection (FIV/FeLV). FIV+ animals were mostly mixed breed, neutered male adult cats, with indoor lifestyle and living in a multi-cat household. The most common clinical manifestation observed was disorders of the oral cavity. Factors found to increase the risk for FeLV seropositivity include mixed breed, young, spayed female cats, indoor lifestyle living in a multi-cat household were the most common epidemiological factors observed. The most common clinical manifestation was anorexia and apathy. The prevalence of these viruses were relatively high, compared with other region of Brazil. This study demonstrated that mixed breed, castrated, multi-cat environment and indoor lifestyle animals are of greater relevance for FIV and FeLV infection diseases. Factors related to cat demographics and health such as age, sex and type of household are important predictors for seropositive status to FeLV or FIV in Fortaleza. High prevalence of FeLV or FIV observed in our study is of concern, in view of the immunosuppressive potential of the two pathogens.
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A formação de cisto de glândula lacrimal é uma comorbidade rara em animais domésticos. O objetivo deste relato é descrever um caso de um cão com cisto de glândula lacrimal. Um cão, macho, sem raça definida, com onze meses de idade, foi atendido com histórico de formação vesicular subpalpebral direita com evolução de três meses. Realizou-se exames complementares como citologia do conteúdo da vesícula e radiografia do crânio do animal. De acordo com a localização topográfica, idade e histórico do animal, suspeitou-se de cisto de glândula lacrimal, sendo encaminhado para exérese cirúrgica e realização de exame histopatológico da peça cirúrgica, onde se confirmou o diagnóstico de cisto de glândula lacrimal. A ressecção cirúrgica da glândula e do cisto lacrimal mostrou-se ser uma medida terapêutica curativa neste caso, sem haver comprometimento na secreção lacrimal.
Todo o conteúdo deste livro está licenciado sob uma Licença de Atribuição Creative Commons. Atribuição 4.0 Internacional (CC BY 4.0). O conteúdo dos artigos e seus dados em sua forma, correção e confiabilidade são de responsabilidade exclusiva dos autores. Permitido o download da obra e o compartilhamento desde que sejam atribuídos créditos aos autores, mas sem a possibilidade de alterá-la de nenhuma forma ou utilizá-la para fins comerciais.
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