Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the long-term clinical outcomes and quality of life of cats having undergone perineal urethrostomy (PU) or prepubic urethrostomy (PPU). Methods This clinical study followed 28 cats (PU, n = 22; PPU, n = 6) that underwent a urethrostomy, with a minimum of 1 year postoperative follow-up. Medical records, pet owner surveys and urologic laboratory tests were used for assessment. Urologic laboratory tests included serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), serum creatinine, urinalysis, urine specific gravity (USG), urine protein:creatinine (UPC) ratio and urine culture. Results The main indications for urethrostomy were multiple catheterizations and PU stricture. The overall complication rates of PU and PPU were 31.8% and 83.3%, respectively. Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and urine scald dermatitis was less frequent in PU than in PPU cats (UTI 22.7% vs 66.6%; dermatitis 4.5% vs 83.3%). Bacteriuria was present in 77.2% and 100% of PU and PPU cats, respectively. Owner satisfaction rates were excellent in 81.8% of PU and 33.3% of PPU cases. Conclusions and relevance A proportion of cats that underwent urethrostomy showed bacteriuria, recurrent UTIs and increased levels of SDMA. PPU is important as a salvage procedure; however, it should be limited to cases in which standard techniques for PU cannot be performed, owing to the potential for recurrent complications and lower owner satisfaction.
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Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between clinical aspects and urethral lesions with reproductive status and age at neutering in obstructed male cats. Methods All cats with compatible signs of urethral obstruction (UO) treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco from 2019 to 2021 were divided into three groups according to their reproductive status: intact; prepubertal neutered; and post-pubertal neutered. Cats with compatible signs of UO were selected for further analysis. Age, clinical signs, age at neutering and age of the first obstructive event were documented. Cats with recurrent obstructive urinary signs or urethral trauma that made catheterization impossible were referred for perineal urethrostomy. The morphology of the excised penises was assessed by histopathological analysis. Results Of 84 cats with signs of UO included in this study, 28.6% were classified as intact, 28.6% as prepubertal neutered and 42.8% as post-pubertal neutered. Intact cats had a significantly earlier onset of UO compared with prepubertal and post-pubertal neutered cats, as seen by the age at obstruction (3.6 vs 5.7 and 5.5 years, respectively). Similar clinical signs and histopathological lesions were observed in all groups. The main clinical signs observed were stranguria, hematuria and pollakiuria. All cats had some degree of injury in the penile urethra. The most common lesions were hemorrhage, fibrosis and congestion. Conclusions and relevance It appears that intact cats had an earlier onset of UO than neutered cats, regardless of age at neutering. Urethral histopathological lesions and clinical signs were similar in both groups. Pediatric neutering represents a useful tool in the control of abandoned and stray animals and the consequent dissemination of zoonoses, thus having a positive impact on public health.
A obstrução uretral é um quadro clínico emergencial, comumente observado em felinos, que pode resultar em sério comprometimento à sua saúde, como lesões renais agudas. Essa afecção pode ter causas mecânica, anatômica ou funcional, e apresentar como principais sintomas a estrangúria, periúria e lambedura excessiva da genitália. O diagnóstico é realizado com base no histórico, exame físico e de imagem, como ultrassonografia e radiografia, sendo a identificação da etiologia de suma importância para instituir o tratamento e diminuir os quadros de recidiva. Ao diagnosticar a doença, o início do tratamento deve ser imediato e intensivo, em virtude do risco de evoluir rapidamente para o óbito. Neste sentido, busca-se corrigir os distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos, fornecer analgesia e realizar a desobstrução uretral, havendo uma variação neste último procedimento, de modo que, a escolha do método mais indicado pode variar de acordo com cada caso. Com base na complexidade em seu estabelecimento, diagnóstico e tratamento, foi objetivado com esse artigo de revisão reunir informações atuais e relevantes, relacionadas ao quadro de obstrução uretral em gatos, procurando enfatizar aspectos clínico, cirúrgico e etiológico da doença, assim como, orientar médicos veterinários no tratamento e prevenção da mesma.
Background: Fibrosing osteomyelitis is a chronic inflammatory process caused by infectious agents that lead to the destruction and replacement of bone tissue by fibroblasts. The diagnosis is based especially on histopathological and bacterial culture. In cases where extensive and irreversible injuries are observed, surgical treatment may be indicated. The objective of this work is to report the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and microbiological aspects of a cat presenting fibrosing osteomyelitis.Case: A 10-year-old male feline, no defined breed, weighing 3.9 kg was referred to one Private Veterinary Clinic of Fortaleza, CE, Brazil with a history of left mandibular enlargement, presenting dysphagia, sialorrhea, an increase in firm consistency along of the left mandibular body, temporomandibular arthralgia and decreased joint motion range. On cranium radiograph, signs of proliferative osteopathy of irregular contours were observed in the branch and body of the left mandible and extending to the rostral region of the right mandible, suggesting a neoplastic process. After anesthesia, for better assessment of the oral cavity, a sample was collected by incisional biopsy, however, the histopathological result was nonspecific. In view of the inconclusive condition, it was decided to perform left hemimandibulectomy combined with right partial mandibulectomy. Tissue samples were obtained and sent for microbiological and histopathological analyses. The last test revealed an inflammatory reaction consisting of neutrophils and plasma cells, associated with a large amount of fibrous connective tissue, multifocal bacterial aggregates, necrosis and bone resorption. Based on the findings, the diagnosis of chronic bacterial osteomyelitis was concluded. The microbiological culture demonstrated the growth of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with sensitivity to cefovecin, which was administered to the treatment in doses of 8 mg/kg/SC, every 15 days, for 60 days. After 10 days of the surgery, the patient was able to start the process of swallowing and seizing pasty food.Discussion: Although radiography is a diagnostic method of choice to assess the extent of bone involvement, it hardly allows the distinction between neoplastic processes and osteomyelitis. Thus, in addition to the cranium radiographic examination, that revealed signs of proliferative osteopathy with irregular contours in branch and body topography of the left mandible were required biopsy and bacterial culture. After mandibulectomy, difficulty in retracting the tongue and anorexia were observed in the first days. Despite that, from the 12th day on, there was an improvement in food seizure, with the return to voluntary feeding. Mandibulectomy is indicated in cases where extensive and irreversible lesions are observed, although excision of the caudal mandible to the third or fourth premolar tooth is not recommended, because it compromises the sublingual musculature, with fall of the tongue and loss of function apprehension. In the present case, the caudal portion of the right mandibular branch was maintained, which facilitated the return of spontaneous feeding. The tissue removed was necessary to perform a microbiological culture with antibiogram, essential to determine the possible etiologic agent and choosing antimicrobial drugs. For the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection, cefovecin was prescribed due to the dosage and route of administration that collaborate with the mandibular surgery, once that the oral treatment is more difficult. Post-surgical complications related to mandibular resection, such as anorexia and difficulty in grasping food, are common. However, in the present case, the patient had an adequate reestablish after 15 days. Therefore, hemimandibulectomy is effective in treating fibrosing osteomyelitis, with maintenance of the patient's ingestive function.
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