Virgin plastic pellets and plastic fragments are reported as ubiquitous beach contaminants in the peer-reviewed literature. A surface density of 0.3 virgin plastic pellets and plastic fragments per square centimeter of the strandline area was registered on an urban beach of the northeast of Brazil. This beach is presently not affected by petrochemical facilities or pellet processing plants. The main source of fragments (96.7%) was attributed to the breaking down of larger plastic items deposited on the beach. In the case of virgin plastic pellets (3.3%), the main sources were the marine environment and possibly nearby port facilities. This category of plastic pollutant offers particular threats to the marine environment and to beach users.
Aims:To determine the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as nonpathogenic E. coli, on the surface of tomatoes, and to evaluate the effect of rinsing with NEW on the organoleptic characteristics of the tomatoes.
Methods and Results:The bactericidal activity of NEW, containing 444 or 89 mg l )1 of active chlorine, was evaluated over pure cultures (8AE5 log CFU ml )1 ) of the above-mentioned strains. All of them were reduced by more than 6 log CFU ml )1 within 5 min of exposure to NEW. Fresh tomatoes were surface-inoculated with the same strains, and rinsed in NEW (89 mg l )1 of active chlorine) or in deionized sterile water (control), for 30 or 60 s. In the NEW treatments, independent of the strain and of the treatment time, an initial surface population of about 5 log CFU sq.cm )1 was reduced to <1 log CFU sq.cm )1 , and no cells were detected in the washing solution by plating procedure. A sensory evaluation was conducted to ascertain possible alterations in organoleptic qualities, yielding no significant differences with regard to untreated tomatoes. Significance and Impact of the Study: Rinsing in NEW reveals as an effective method to control the presence of E. coli O157:H7, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes on the surface of fresh tomatoes, without affecting their organoleptic characteristics. This indicates its potential application for the decontamination of fresh produce surfaces.
Aim: To ascertain the efficacy of neutral electrolysed water (NEW) in reducing Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes on glass and stainless steel surfaces. Its effectiveness for that purpose is compared with that of a sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution with similar pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and active chlorine content. Methods and Results: First, the bactericidal activity of NEW was evaluated over pure cultures (8AE5 log CFU ml )1 ) of the abovementioned strains: all of them were reduced by more than 7 log CFU ml )1 within 5 min of exposure either to NEW (63 mg l )1 active chlorine) or to NaClO solution (62 mg l )1 active chlorine). Then, stainless steel and glass surfaces were inoculated with the same strains and rinsed for 1 min in either NEW, NaClO solution or deionized water (control). In the first two cases, the populations of all the strains decreased by more than 6 log CFU 50 cm )2 . No significant difference (P £ 0AE05) was found between the final populations of each strain with regard to the treatment solutions (NEW or NaClO solution) or to the type of surface. Conclusions: NEW was revealed to be as effective as NaClO at significantly reducing the presence of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria (in this study, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus) on stainless steel and glass surfaces. Significance and Impact of the Study: NEW has the advantage of being safer than NaClO and easier to handle. Hence, it represents an advantageous alternative for the disinfection of surfaces in the food industry.
FGFs are well known as mesodermal inducers and they have been reported to have neural inducing and/or caudalizing activity in Xenopus. To evaluate the role of FGFs in neural induction and patterning of the nervous system in chick embryos, we have targeted the ectopic expression of these factors by applying FGF-soaked beads to extended primitive streak chick embryos developing in culture. The whole embryo culture system allows to directly assessing the neural inducing activity on nonneural ectodermal cells. Our results show that FGFs induce the production of ectopic neural structures in the epiblast cell layer which are independent of the endogenous neural tube. The induced neural plates express several neural positional markers (Otx-2, Krox-20, EphA4, EphA7, and cHox-B9), although they lack anterior neural markers such as BF-1. These effects are very likely to be exerted by the direct action of FGF on epiblast cells because we have found no evidence of the induction of an organizer-like activity or of the presence of new axial mesoderm induced by the growth factor. We conclude that FGFs can act as direct neural inducers and that this action is exerted independently from the axial mesoderm.
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