ResumoO objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a macrofauna edáfica e avaliar os efeitos ocasionados em virtude do método de colheita e aplicação de vinhaça em áreas de cana-de-açúcar comparativamente com uma área de mata. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (colheita manual com uso do fogo e mecanizada sem uso do fogo associadas ou não à aplicação de vinhaça em adubação, e mata) e cinco repetições durante seis épocas amostrais. Retiraram-se monólitos de 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm, sendo os organismos do solo coletados e classificados em grupos e/ou ordem. A caracterização dos grupos nos tratamentos foi realizada por análise de componentes principais. Após o cálculo da densidade de organismos, dos índices ecológicos de diversidade (Shannon), equitabilidade (Pielou) e riqueza de grupos, os valores foram comparados através do teste Duncan ou Kruskal-Wallis a 5%. Comparativamente com as áreas de cana-de-açúcar, a área de mata apresenta maiores valores dos índices calculados. Os tratamentos de cana-de-açúcar com manutenção da cobertura e/ou aplicação de vinhaça favorecem a fauna edáfica. Palavras-chave: Saccharum officinarum, fauna edáfica, palhada, vinhaça, mata AbstractThe objective of this study was to characterize the soil fauna and assessing the effects of harvest method and vinasse application in areas of sugar cane compared to a forest area. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments (manual harvesting with use of fire and mechanical harvesting without use of fire associate to or not vinasse application fertilizer and forest), five repetitions for six sampling times. Retired monoliths 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm, where soil organisms were sorted and classified into groups and /or order. The characterization of the treatments was performed by principal component analysis. Having previously calculated the density of organisms, the ecological indices of diversity (Shannon), evenness (Pielou) and richness of groups, these were compared by Duncan or Kruskal-Wallis test at 5%. Compared with the areas of sugar cane , the forest area has the highest calculated indices. The treatments of sugar cane with maintenance of straw and /or vinasse application favor soil fauna.
Maintaining plants in the field for two consecutive crop cycles is one of the latest techniques used by strawberry growers to reduce production costs. The goal of this research was to evaluate the postharvest fruit quality of six strawberry cultivars produced for two consecutive seasons with the same plants. They were planted from May to July 2010 under low-tunnel and fruits were evaluated in two growing seasons (season 1= January, February, and March 2011 and season 2= August, September, and October 2011), totaling three harvests of each cultivar in each year season. Fruits were picked up randomly among 500 plants of each cultivar, organized into five replications of five fruits and kept for three days before analysis under refrigeration (average temperature of 4°C). Variables analyzed were: soluble solids content, titratable acidity, soluble solids content/titratable acidity, flesh firmness, C vitamin content, sensory characteristics (sweetness, flavor, acidity, aroma, shape and flesh firmness), and mineral composition (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Cu and Zn). 'Albion', 'Monterey' and 'San Andreas' showed good physical, chemical and sensory characteristics in both seasons. In general, fruits produced during the season 1 showed better physical, chemical and sensory characteristics than fruits produced in season 2. 'Palomar' and 'Portola' were better than the other cultivars concerning C vitamin content in both seasons. 'Palomar' showed higher potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc levels, and 'Portola' showed higher calcium and iron levels.
The effect of aromatic plants on number of twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, when intercropped with strawberry were assessed in the field. During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), or sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) were intercropped with strawberry. Assessments were performed on TSSM populations by taking six samples from July 20 to September 20, 2012. During the second year, garlic plants were intercropped between rows of strawberry at three densities in greenhouse and field. Mobile forms and eggs numbers (only in field) of TSSM were evaluated from April 18 to June 05 (greenhouse) and June 06 to August 14, 2013 (field). It was found that intercropping with garlic caused a greater reduction of TSSM (up to 52 %) in strawberry plants when higher populations of TSSM occurred in the field. TSSM reduction was found in one sample when fennel and chives were intercropped with strawberries (42 and 50 % reduction, respectively); this also occurred when populations of TSSM were higher. The three densities of garlic plants (one, two and three rows among the strawberry rows) reduced TSSM mobile forms by 49, 53 and 60 % (greenhouse) and 44, 51 and 65 % (field), and eggs by 38, 43 and 64 % (field), respectively. The results suggest that intercropping garlic plants between strawberry rows is a promising strategy to reduce TSSM populations.
The diverse flora of the Atlantic Forest is fertile ground for discovering new chemical structures with insecticidal activity. The presence of species belonging to the genus Baccharis is of particular interest, as these species have shown promise in pest management applications. The objective of this study is to chemically identify the constituents expressed in the leaves of seven species of Baccharis (B. anomala DC., B. calvescens DC., B. mesoneura DC., B. milleflora DC., B. oblongifolia Pers., B. trimera (Less) DC. and B. uncinella DC.) and to evaluate the toxicological and morphological effects caused by essential oils (EOs) on the larvae and adults of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) indicated that limonene was the main common constituent in all Baccharis species. This constituent in isolation, as well as the EOs of B. calvescens, B. mesoneura, and B. oblongifolia, caused mortality in over 80% of adults of D. suzukii at a discriminatory concentration of 80 mg L−1 in bioassays of ingestion and topical application. These results are similar to the effect of spinosyn-based synthetic insecticides (spinetoram 75 mg L−1) 120 h after exposure. Limonene and EOs from all species had the lowest LC50 and LC90 values relative to spinosyn and azadirachtin (12 g L−1) in both bioassays. However, they showed the same time toxicity over time as spinetoram when applied to adults of D. suzukii (LT50 ranging from 4.6 to 8.7 h) in a topical application bioassay. In olfactometry tests, 92% of D. suzukii females showed repellent behavior when exposed to the EOs and limonene. Likewise, the EOs of B. calvescens, B. mesoneura, and B. oblongifolia significantly reduced the number of eggs in artificial fruits (≅ 7.6 eggs fruit−1), differing from the control treatment with water (17.2 eggs fruit−1) and acetone (17.6 eggs fruit−1). According to histological analyses, the L3 larvae of D. suzukii had morphological and physiological alterations and deformations after exposure to treatments containing EOs and limonene, which resulted in high larval, pupal, and adult mortality. In view of the results, Baccharis EOs and their isolated constituent, limonene, proved to be promising alternatives for developing bioinsecticides to manage of D. suzukii.
Resumo -O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os parâmetros biológicos e determinar a tabela de vida de fertilidade de Neopamera bilobata (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae) em morangueiro. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves, RS, em câmara climatizada (a 23±1°C, 70±10% UR e fotófase de 12 horas). Utilizaram-se folíolos, flores, frutos verdes e maduros de morangueiro 'Aromas' como alimento para os percevejos. O desenvolvimento das fases imaturas e os parâmetros biológicos dos adultos foram monitorados diariamente. O percevejo N. bilobata não completou o ciclo biológico em folíolos e flores de morangueiro. Em frutos maduros e verdes, o tempo de desenvolvimento da ninfa ao adulto foi de 32,8±9,12 e 36,7±6,80 dias, com viabilidade de 27,3 e 51%, respectivamente. O período de oviposição foi de 34,7±21,2 dias, com 319,1±262,7 ovos em frutos maduros, e de 43,9±18,3 dias, com 318,2±144,7 ovos em frutos verdes. Neopamera bilobata completa seu ciclo biológico na cultura do morangueiro. Frutos verdes de morangueiro são mais adequados ao desenvolvimento deste inseto do que frutos maduros.Termos para indexação: Neopamera bilobata, Fragaria x ananassa, "catfacing", deformação dos frutos, pequenas frutas, percevejo. Biological parameters and fertility life table of Neopamera bilobata (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae) on strawberryAbstract -The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological parameters and to determinate the fertility life table of Neopamera bilobata (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae) on strawberry. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of Embrapa Uva e Vinho, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, in a climatic chamber (at 23±1°C, 70±10% RH, and 12-hour photoperiod). Leaflets, flowers, and green and ripe fruit of 'Aromas' strawberry were used to feed the insects. The development of immature stages and the biological parameters of adults were daily monitored. The bug N. bilobata did not complete the life cycle on strawberry leaflets and flowers. On mature and green fruit, the nymph-adult development time was of 32.8±9.12 and 36.7±6.80 days, with viability of 27.3 and 51%, respectively. The oviposition period was of 34.7±21.2 days, with 319.1±262.7 eggs on ripe fruit, and of 43.9±18.3 days, with 318.2±144.7 eggs on green fruit. Neopamera bilobata completes its biological cycle on strawberry crop. Green fruit of strawberry are more suitable for this insect development than ripe ones.
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