Acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe analgesic and antipyretic drug. However, APAP overdose leads to massive hepatocyte death. Cell death during APAP toxicity occurs by oncotic necrosis, in which the release of intracellular contents can elicit a reactive inflammatory response. We have previously demonstrated that an intravascular gradient of chemokines and mitochondria-derived formyl peptides collaborate to guide neutrophils to sites of liver necrosis by CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) and formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), respectively. Here, we investigated the role of CXCR2 chemokines and mitochondrial products during APAP-induced liver injury and in liver neutrophil influx and hepatotoxicity. During APAP overdose, neutrophils accumulated into the liver, and blockage of neutrophil infiltration by anti-granulocyte receptor 1 depletion or combined CXCR2-FPR1 antagonism significantly prevented hepatotoxicity. In agreement with our in vivo data, isolated human neutrophils were cytotoxic to HepG2 cells when cocultured, and the mechanism of neutrophil killing was dependent on direct contact with HepG2 cells and the CXCR2-FPR1-signaling pathway. Also, in mice and humans, serum levels of both mitochondrial DNA (mitDNA) and CXCR2 chemokines were higher during acute liver injury, suggesting that necrosis products may reach remote organs through the circulation, leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Accordingly, APAP-treated mice exhibited marked systemic inflammation and lung injury, which was prevented by CXCR2-FPR1 blockage and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) absence (TLR9 2/2 mice). Conclusion: Chemokines and mitochondrial products (e.g., formyl peptides and mitDNA) collaborate in neutrophil-mediated injury and systemic inflammation during acute liver failure. Hepatocyte death is amplified by liver neutrophil infiltration, and the release of necrotic products into the circulation may trigger a systemic inflammatory response and remote lung injury.
Data reported during recent years reveal the complex picture of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Latin America. Whereas in countries like Argentina and Brazil is almost identical to the characteristic of most countries from North America and Europe, HEV in the Caribbean and Mexico involves the water-borne, non-zoonotic viral genotypes responsible for epidemics in Asia and Africa. Nevertheless, Latin America has been considered a highly endemic region for hepatitis E in the scientific literature, a generalization that ignores the above complexity. In addition, reports from isolated Amerindian communities, which display well known, important and very specific epidemiological features for hepatitis B and D virus infections are neither taken into account when considering the epidemiology of hepatitis E in the region. This review updates compilation of the available information for the HEV infection, both among humans and other mammals, in Latin America, discusses the strengths and the weaknesses of our current knowledge, and identifies future areas of research.
BackgroundHepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the faecal-oral route, and represent common causes of acute hepatitis in developing countries. The endemicity of HAV infection has shifted from high to moderate in Brazil. Human cases of HEV infection seem to be rare, although the virus has been detected in swine livestock and effluents of slaughterhouses. This study was to determine the epidemiology of hepatitis A and E in one of the largest agricultural settlements in the Amazon Basin of Brazil.MethodsSerum samples collected from 397 individuals aged between 5 and 90 years during a population-based cross-sectional survey were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV antibodies. Associated risk factors and spatial clustering of HAV and HEV seropositivity were also analyzed.ResultsThe overall rate of HAV seropositivity was 82.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 79.2-86.6%). Multilevel logistic regression analysis identified increasing age (in years; odds ratio (OR), 1.097; 95% CI, 1.050-1.147; P < 0.001) and crowding (OR, 1.603; 95% CI, 1.054-2.440; P = 0.028) as significant risk factors for HAV seropositivity. Anti-HEV IgG was detected in 50/388 settlers (12.9%, 95% CI, 9.5-16.2%). Anti-HEV IgM was detected in 7/43 (16.3%) anti-IgG positive samples, and 4 of them had a confirmed result by immunoblot. Increasing age was the only significant determinant of HEV seropositivity (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.016-1.050; P < 0.001). No significant spatial clustering of HAV and HEV seropositivity was detected in the area.ConclusionsBoth HAV and HEV are endemic, with differing rates of infection in children and adults in this rural setting of the Brazilian Amazon. Anti-HEV prevalence was considerably higher than those previously reported in Brazil. The detection of HEV- specific IgM antibodies in four asymptomatic individuals is highly suggestive of the circulation of HEV in this rural population.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-458) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Experimental infection of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni showed microscopic patterns of tissue reactions comparable to those seen in the severe forms of human leptospirosis, including intra-alveolar hemorrhage. The most impressive microscopic changes were seen in the lung and kidney of animals killed at days 6 and 12 after inoculation. There were extensive and irregular areas of hemorrhage predominating around main bronchial branches or diffusely spread to the pulmonary parenchyma, as well as severe tubulointerstitial nephritis. Antibody response detected by the microscopic agglutination test was quantitatively similar to those seen in humans and paralleled severity of tissue lesions. The distribution of leptospires or antigenic debris in infected tissues was observed by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Large numbers of typical leptospires were seen in the lumen of proximal renal tubules. Positive reactions showing antigenic debris were closely associated with sites of tissue damage.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries. However, this review shows that further studies are required to demonstrate the importance of preventive vaccination and treatment worldwide, with emphasis on hepatitis E infection in the public health system.
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