Abstract-In the near future, a significant increase in electric power consumption in vehicles is expected. To limit the associated increase in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, smart strategies for the generation, storage/retrieval, distribution, and consumption of electric power will be used. Inspired by the research on energy management for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), this paper presents an extensive study on controlling the vehicular electric power system to reduce the fuel use and emissions, by generating and storing electrical energy only at the most suitable moments. For this purpose, both off-line optimization methods using knowledge of the driving pattern and on-line implementable ones are developed and tested in a simulation environment. Results show a reduction in fuel use of 2%, even without a prediction of the driving cycle being used. Simultaneously, even larger reductions of the emissions are obtained. The strategies can also be applied to a mild HEV with an integrated starter alternator (ISA), without modifications, or to other types of HEVs with slight changes in the formulation.Index Terms-Energy management, fuel reduction, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), regenerative braking, vehicular electric power system.
This report considers trajectory planning with given design constraints and design of an appropriate feedforward controller for single axis motion control. A motivation is given for using fourth order feedfonvard with fourth order trajectories. An algorithm is given for calculating hqjher order trajectories with bounds on all considered derivatives for point to point moves. It is shown that these trajectories are time-optimal in the most relevant cases. All required eqmtions for third and fourth order trajectory planning are explicitly derived. Implementation, discretization and quantization effects are considered. Simulation results show the effectiveness of fourth order feedfonvard in comparison with lower order feedforward.
In this paper we describe the hitherto unravelled facts on the interactions of a cold atmospheric plasma with living cells and tissues. A specially designed source, plasma needle, is a low-power discharge, which operates under the threshold of tissue damage. When applied properly, the needle does not cause fatal cell injury which would result in cell death (necrosis). Instead, it allows precise and localized cell removal by means of the so-called cell detachment. In addition, plasma can be used for bacterial disinfection. Because of mild treatment conditions, plasma disinfection can be performed in vivo, e.g. on wounds and dental cavities. Presently, one strives to obtain a better control of the operating device. Therefore, plasma has been characterized using a variety of diagnostics, and a smart system has been designed for the positioning of the device with respect to the treated surface.
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