Multidrug resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle in the treatment of cancer patients. The best characterised mechanism responsible for multidrug resistance involves the expression of the MDR-1 gene product, P-glycoprotein. However, the resistance process is multifactorial. Studies of multidrug resistance mechanisms have relied on the analysis of cancer cell lines that have been selected and present cross-reactivity to a broad range of anticancer agents. This work characterises a multidrug resistant cell line, originally selected for resistance to the Vinca alkaloid vincristine and derived from the human erythroleukaemia cell K562. This cell line, named Lucena 1, overexpresses P-glycoprotein and have its resistance reversed by the chemosensitisers verapamil, trifluoperazine and cyclosporins A, D and G. Furthermore, we demonstrated that methylene blue was capable of partially reversing the resistance in this cell line. On the contrary, the use of 5-fluorouracil increased the resistance of Lucena 1. In addition to chemotherapics, Lucena 1 cells were resistant to ultraviolet A radiation and hydrogen peroxide and failed to mobilise intracellular calcium when thapsigargin was used. Changes in the cytoskeleton of this cell line were also observed.
In order to assess the impact of nanoplastics on marine species, polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) have been largely used as model particles. Here we studied the effects of 50 nm amino-modified PS-NH on Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immune system cells (coelomocytes) in the presence of celomic fluid (CF) and at different NP concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 25 μg mL) and experimental conditions (absence or presence of EDTA). PS-NH acquired a protein corona once incubated with CF, dominated by the toposome precursor protein (TPP). In short-term cultures, a significant concentration- and time-dependent decrease in lysosomal membrane stability and apoptotic-like nuclear alterations were observed in phagocytes upon exposure to PS-NH (10 and 25 µg mL) in CF but they resulted abolished in the presence of EDTA confirming the role of TPP in triggering PS-NH-coelomocytes interaction and toxicity. PS-NH did not alter MXR phenotype but the observed dose-dependent decrease in calcein accumulation suggests the ability of PS-NH to affect pump's efflux activity. Overall results encourage additional studies on positively charged nanoplastics, since the observed effects on sea urchin coelomocytes as well as the TPP corona formation might represent a first step for addressing their impact on sensitive marine species.
P-glycoprotein has a widespread expression on normal tissues. The protein has also been strongly associated with the multidrug resistance phenotype (MDR) on tumor cells. The employment of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy has contributed to the discovery and application of new particular fluorescent dyes. Nevertheless, several studies are being performed in different cellular types neglecting the expression/activity of MDR proteins. Because many fluorochromes have been reported as P-glycoprotein substrates, an especial attention must be given to the properties of new dyes in the presence of MDR proteins. Flow cytometric analyzes of Mitotracker Green (MTG) fluorescence profile were performed in a human erythroleukemic cell line and its resistant counterpart. In this report we demonstrated that MTG, a probe used to evaluate the mitochondrial mass, is a P-glycoprotein substrate and its staining profile is dependent on the activity of this protein. In vitro studies on a human erythroleukemic cell line and its resistant counterpart revealed that MDR modulators (Cyclosporin A, Verapamil, and Trifluoperazine) alter the MTG fluorescence pattern on a resistant cell line. The findings suggest that attention should be given to the expression of P-glycoprotein when performing an evaluation of mitochondria properties with MTG.
Ahs/racr: The P-glycoprotein expressed in the blood-brain barrier has been associated with the restricted access of many compounds to the central nervous system. Mice lacking the /ndrla P-glycoprotein gene show an accumulation of various drugs in brain tissues. P-glycoprotein is also correlated with the phenomenon of multidrug resistance in tumour cells. To investigate the effects of drugs that modulate multidrug resistance in the selective permeability of the blood-brain barrier, mice were treated with cyclosporin A or trifluoperazine plus ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein substrate, that has a limited access to the central nervous system. When mice received an injection of cyclosporin A (50 mg/kg. intraperitoneally) or trifluoperazine (750 pg/kg, intraperitoneally) one hour prior to the administration of ivermectin (10-15 mgikg, intraperitoneally) there was an increase in the acute toxicity of ivermectin. HPLC analysis of brain tissues indicated that the ivermectin brain concentration was 2.5 times higher when mice were previously treated with cyclosporin A (50 mg/kg). These results suggest that attention should be given to the side effects of drugs that interact with P-glycoprotein and are commonly used clinically and also to the possibility of creating a pharmacological gap in the blood-brain barrier that allows the access of chemotherapeutic drugs to brain tumours.
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with programmed cell death. Studies of intact cells are important for the understanding of the process of cell death and its relation to mitochondrial physiology. Using cytofluorometric approaches we studied the mitochondrial behavior in an erythroleukemic cell line. The effects of protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), potassium exchanger (nigericin), potassium ionophore (valinomycin), Na+K+-ATPase inhibitor (ouabain) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor (cyclosporin A) were evaluated. Cyclosporin A (CSA) was very effective in attenuating the disruption of inner mitochondrial membrane potential induced by CCCP. However, CSA failed to protect the loss of inner mitochondrial membrane potential induced by potassium intracellular flux manipulation. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial cyclophilin is not involved in the cell events mediated by deregulation of potassium flux, underlining the need for further studies in intact tumor cells for a better understanding of the involvement of mitochondria physiology in cell death events.
ABC transporter (ATP-binding-cassette transporter) proteins have been strongly associated with the phenomenon of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Furthermore, their physiological expression has been studied in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants and vertebrate or invertebrate animals. Their widespread expression through the evolution demonstrates their relevance to the survival of living things. In the present study, we characterized the functional activity of ABCB1 and ABCC1 proteins in gametes and embryonic cells of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. The ABC transporter proteins' functional activity was up-regulated post-fertilization. Eggs and spermatozoa of E. lucunter accumulated more C-AM (calcein acetoxymethyl ester), a fluorescent substrate of ABCB1 and ABCC1 proteins, than embryonic cells. Verapamil, reversin 205 and indomethacin were able to increase C-AM influx in eggs and embryos. However, verapamil and reversin 205 were more efficient than indomethacin, suggesting a predominance of ABCB1 protein over ABCC1 protein activity. Multidrug resistance modulating agents, at the concentration range that inhibited ABC transporter proteins, did not block the embryonic development until blastula stage. However, inhibition of ABCB1-mediated efflux by reversin 205 circumvented resistance of embryos to the antimitotic vinca alkaloid vinblastine. Embryonic development was more efficiently blocked when colchicine was previously added to eggs than to embryos 5 min after fertilization. This set of results suggests that these proteins act as a fundamental biochemical barrier conferring a protective physiological role against toxic xenobiotics in E. lucunter embryos.
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