Este trabalho avaliou, por intermédio de simulações, a economicidade de sistemas de produção de bovinos de corte com novilhas primíparas aos dois (sistema "um ano"), três (sistema "dois anos") e quatro anos (sistema "tradicional") de idade. No sistema "um ano", as fêmeas tiveram três sistemas nutricionais por 100 dias, após a desmama no primeiro outono-inverno, constituída por uma das três alternativas: a) pastejo contínuo em pastagem cultivada de azevém - PAST; b) pastejo contínuo em pastagem natural e suplementação com ração - CNR; c) confinamento com silagem de sorgo + uréia - SIL. Após os 100 dias, as novilhas foram mantidas em conjunto, utilizando-se pastagens naturais melhoradas. Os modelos usados, para comparar os sistemas foram construídos em uma planilha de cálculo Excel, a partir de um modelo original. Os dados biológicos referentes ao sistema "um ano" foram coletados na Empresa Agropecuária Guatambu, Dom Pedrito, RS, em 395 bezerras de corte. A margem bruta anual correspondeu a R$ 44.066,99, R$ 41.001,32, R$ 40.509,86, R$ 40.045,65 e R$ 14.148,08, respectivamente, para os sistemas "dois anos", "um ano" SIL, "um ano" PAST, "um ano" CNR e "tradicional" de produção de bovinos de corte. O custo variável mais elevado foi do sistema "um ano" CNR. Sistemas de produção que fazem uso de tecnologias mais intensivas apresentam resultados superiores ao sistema "tradicional" de produção de bovinos de corte.
The results showed that caspofungin has limited fungistatic activity against P. insidiosum. This work is the first study to analyse the susceptibility of this oomycete to inhibitors of beta-glucans of the cellular wall.
Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective against multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematodes.
The effects of dietary carbohydrate and of intestinal microflora on excretion of endogenous amino acids by poultry were investigated. Excretion of endogenous amino acids was compared among fasted roosters, intact roosters fed low- or high-fiber, N-free diets, and surgically-modified (SM) roosters fed a low-fiber, N-free diet. The low-fiber diet contained 50% corn starch, 45% glucose, and 5% cellulose, whereas the high-fiber diet contained 25% each of corn starch, glucose, and raw potato starch, 17.5% cellulose, and 7.5% pectin. Digesta were obtained from the terminal ileum of SM roosters to eliminate effects of the microflora in the large intestine and ceca. The roosters were force-fed 60 g of the appropriate diet (30 g at the initiation of the trial followed by an additional 30 g 6 hours later). Excreta or digesta and urine were collected quantitatively for 48 hr after the first force-feeding. Roosters fed the high-fiber diet excreted substantially more (P less than .05) amino acids than did fasted roosters or roosters fed a low-fiber diet. Excreta from roosters fed the high-fiber diet contained higher (P less than .05) levels of alanine and aspartic acid than excreta from fasted or digesta from SM roosters, indicating substantial microbial synthesis of amino acids in the gut. In contrast, amino acid composition of excreta from fasted and intact roosters fed the low-fiber diet was similar to that of digesta from SM roosters, suggesting less microbial influence. Excretion of glucosamine plus galactosamine by SM roosters was approximately twice that of intact roosters fed the same diet. Glycine was the most abundant amino acid in digesta of SM roosters. Results of this study indicate that dietary carbohydrate substantially affects excretion of endogenous amino acids by poultry and that fasted birds may not provide an accurate estimate of endogenous amino acid excretion for birds fed high-fiber feedstuffs in amino acid digestibility trials.
We conclude that the use of hyphal inocula of P. insidiosum for in vitro susceptibility tests could be a suitable method for evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility, particularly when it is not possible to obtain a standardized zoospore inoculum.
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