RESUMO.-[Efeito imunomodulador da β-glucana usada como aditivo alimentar em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen).]O uso da β-glucana como suplemento alimentar foi avaliado em jundiás. A β-glucana foi adicionada à ração na proporção de 0.01%, e 0.1% e fornecida aos peixes por 21, para avaliar dados hematológicos e parâmetros do sistema imune natural, ou 42 dias, para avaliar ganho de peso e resistência ao desafio com Aeromonas hydrophila. A adição da β-glucana na dieta não afetou o ganho de peso e não induziu alterações hematológicas nem alterações nos níveis de aglutininas e mieloperoxidase sanguínea. No entanto, a atividade hemolítica natural do sistema do complemento foi significativamente maior nos peixes alimentados com β-glucana. Além disso, nos peixes alimentados com β-glucana e desafiados com A. hydrophila, o número de bactérias isoladas do sangue foi significativamente menor, e a sobrevivência ao desafio foi significativamente maior do que nos peixes que não receberam β-glucana. Consequentemente, concluímos que a β-glucana tem potencial imunomodulador quando adicionada à dieta, nas condições experimentais aqui indicadas, e contribui para aumentar imunidade natural e a resistência dos jundiás ao desafio com patógenos específicos.
INTRODUCTIONThe occurrence of infectious diseases is one of the major causes of losses in modern aquaculture (Sitjà-Bobadilla The immunomodulatory effects of dietary β-glucan were evaluated in silver catfish. β-glucan was added to the diet (0.01%, and 0.1%) and fed to the fish for 21 days, to evaluate effects on blood and some innate immune parameter, or fed for 42 days, to evaluate growth rate and resistance to challenge with pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. We found that adding β-glucan to the diet had no effect on fish growth and no effect on blood cells, or serum bacterial agglutination and serum myeloperoxidase activity. However, fish that received β-glucan in the diet had the natural hemolytic activity of complement significantly higher compared to control fish. Furthermore, fish fed with β-glucan and challenged with A. hydrophila had fewer bacteria in blood and presented a significantly higher survival rate compared to control fish. Thus, we concluded that β-glucan might be explored as feed additive aiming to improve silver catfish innate immunity and resistance to specific pathogen.INDEX TERMS: Silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, fish, immunostimulants, β-glucan, Aeromonas hydrophila.
Background and Aim: Immune-modulating molecules mainly act on innate immune cells, which are central to early defense against invading pathogens and contribute to developing adaptive immunity. Yeast-extracted β-glucan, a model immune-modulating molecule, is widely used in several animal species; however, its effect on horse immune parameters has not been thoroughly investigated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of orally administered β-glucan on selected innate immune parameters in horses.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen thoroughbred horses were assigned equally into three groups as follows: One control group (no β-glucan) and two β-glucan experimental groups (one received 125 mg and the other 2 g of β-glucan per day for 28 days). Blood samples were collected before and at the end of the experiment for hematological analysis, whole blood phagocytosis, respiratory burst assays, and to assess the serum lysozyme and complement hemolytic activities.
Results: At the end of the experiment, significant decreases (p<0.05) in monocyte numbers were observed in the control horses (258.8±45.9 vs. 115.3±41.5) and in those fed 125 mg/day of β-glucan (208.8±72.3 vs. 99.2±60.7), whereas a significant increase in numbers was noted in the horses that were fed 2 g/day of β-glucan (303.5±45.8 vs. 429.8±86.0; p<0.05). The natural hemolytic activity of the complement was higher only in horses fed 2 g/day of β-glucan (p=0.018) compared to the other groups. The hemolytic activity in the classical pathway was higher in those fed 125 mg/day (p=0.0035) and 2 g/day of β-glucan (p=0.0001).
Conclusion: β-glucan improves important innate immune parameters and might be fed to horses before stressful events.
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