Nanoparticles (NPs) based on N,N-dimethyl chitosan (DMC) and N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC), physical crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were successful obtained, using water/benzyl alcohol emulsion system. NPs morphologies were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. NPs were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis, Zeta Potential, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Wide-angle X-ray Scattering. Curcumin (CUR) was loaded onto NPs and controlled release studies were evaluated in simulated intestinal fluid and in simulated gastric fluid. Cytotoxicity assays showed only loaded TMC/TPP particles containing CUR were slightly cytotoxic on human cervical tumor cells (SiHa cells), concerning unloaded TMC/TPP particles. Conversely, loaded NPs (TMC/TPP/CUR and DMC/TPP/CUR), especially TMC/TPP/CUR sample presented greater biocompatibility toward healthy VERO cells than unloaded NPs (TMC/TPP and DMC/TPP).
The aim of this study was to compare fatty acid profiles of seed samples from twenty different soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) genotypes (14 non-transgenic and six transgenic Roundup-tolerant) grown at two different locations, both in the Parana state, a southern region of Brazil. A total of eleven fatty acids were detected and quantified, among them the most expressive ones were oleic, linoleic, linolenic and palmitic acids. The total unsaturated fatty acid amount was higher than 82%. An increase in the n-3 fatty acids quantities were observed in transgenic species, which can be reflected in lower n-6/n-3 ratios, a highly desired trend regarding consumers' health. In conclusion, results showed a large amount of variation among the different germplasms (either conventional or transgenic) within and across locations.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of strobilurin (pyraclostrobin) + triazole (epoxiconazole) fungicides application on the proximate composition of soybeans. Six treatments of varying numbers of fungicide applications following soybean germination, termed T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, were assessed for this experiment. Based on the results, there were only minor differences in the proximate composition of soybeans in terms of moisture, ash, crude protein, and total lipid contents. In contrast, there were large effects on the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of phytosterols and tocopherols, which varied greatly among the fungicide application treatments. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to identify critical issues regarding the potential for the production of soybeans enriched in phenolic compounds, tocopherols, and essential fatty acids (α-linolenic and linoleic acids, representatives of the omega-3 and omega-6 families, respectively) associated with the number of sprayings applied during the development of soybean crops.
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