TRPV1 is a Ca2+-permeable channel mostly studied as a pain receptor in sensory neurons. However, its role in other cell types is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that TRPV1 is functionally expressed in CD4+ T cells where it acts as a non-store-operated Ca2+ channel and contributes to T cell receptor (TCR)-induced Ca2+ influx, TCR signaling and T cell activation. In models of T cell-mediated colitis, TRPV1 promotes colitogenic T cell responses and intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 in human CD4+ T cells recapitulates the phenotype of murine Trpv1−/− CD4+ T cells. These findings suggest that TRPV1 inhibition could represent a new therapeutic strategy to restrain proinflammatory T cell responses.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring is a common, relevant posttranslational modification of eukaryotic surface proteins. Here, we developed a fast, simple, and highly sensitive (high attomole-low femtomole range) method that uses liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS n ) for the first large-scale analysis of GPI-anchored molecules (i.e., the GPIome) of a eukaryote, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Our genome-wise prediction analysis revealed that approximately 12% of T. cruzi genes possibly encode GPI-anchored proteins. By analyzing the GPIome of T. cruzi insect-dwelling epimastigote stage using LC-MS n , we identified 90 GPI species, of which 79 were novel. Moreover, we determined that mucins coded by the T. cruzi small mucin-like gene (TcSMUG S) family are the major GPI-anchored proteins expressed on the epimastigote cell surface. TcSMUG S mucin mature sequences are short (56-85 amino acids) and highly O-glycosylated, and contain few proteolytic sites, therefore, less likely susceptible to proteases of the midgut of the insect vector. We propose that our approach could be used for the high throughput GPIomic analysis of other lower and higher eukaryotes.
BackgroundLysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is the main phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and is usually noted as a marker of several human diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer and diabetes. Some studies suggest that oxLDL modulates Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. However, effector molecules that are present in oxLDL particles and can trigger TLR signaling are not yet clear. LPC was previously described as an attenuator of sepsis and as an immune suppressor. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of LPC as a dual modulator of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway.Methodology/Principal FindingsHEK 293A cells were transfected with TLR expression constructs and stimulated with LPC molecules with different fatty acid chain lengths and saturation levels. All LPC molecules activated both TLR4 and TLR2-1 signaling, as evaluated by NF-қB activation and IL-8 production. These data were confirmed by Western blot analysis of NF-қB translocation in isolated nuclei of peritoneal murine macrophages. However, LPC counteracted the TLR4 signaling induced by LPS. In this case, NF-қB translocation, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were blocked. Moreover, LPC activated the MAP Kinases p38 and JNK, but not ERK, in murine macrophages. Interestingly, LPC blocked LPS-induced ERK activation in peritoneal macrophages but not in TLR-transfected cells.Conclusions/SignificanceThe above results indicate that LPC is a dual-activity ligand molecule. It is able to trigger a classical proinflammatory phenotype by activating TLR4- and TLR2-1-mediated signaling. However, in the presence of classical TLR ligands, LPC counteracts some of the TLR-mediated intracellular responses, ultimately inducing an anti-inflammatory phenotype; LPC may thus play a role in the regulation of cell immune responses and disease progression.
Glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major capsular component in the Cryptococcus complex, interacts with the immune system in multiple ways, which include the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the modulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by phagocytes. In this study, we analyzed several structural parameters of GXM samples from Cryptococcus neoformans (serotypes A and D) and Cryptococcus gattii (serotypes B and C) and correlated them with the production of NO by phagocytes and the activation of TLRs. GXM fractions were differentially recognized by TLR2/TLR1 (TLR2/1) and TLR2/6 heterodimers expressed on TLR-transfected HEK293A cells. Higher NF-B luciferase reporter activity induced by GXM was observed in cells expressing TLR2/1 than in cells transfected with TLR2/6 constructs. A serotype B GXM from C. gattii was the most effective polysaccharide fraction activating the TLR-mediated response. This serotype B polysaccharide, which was also highly efficient at eliciting the production of NO by macrophages, was similar to the other GXM samples in monosaccharide composition, zeta potential, and electrophoretic mobility. However, immunofluorescence with four different monoclonal antibodies and dynamic light-scattering analysis revealed that the serotype B GXM showed particularities in serological reactivity and had the smallest effective diameter among the GXM samples analyzed in this study. Fractionation of additional serotype B GXMs, followed by exposure of these fractions to macrophages, revealed a correlation between NO production and reduced effective diameters. Our results demonstrate a great functional diversity in GXM samples from different isolates and establish their abilities to differentially activate cellular responses. We propose that serological properties as well as physical chemical parameters, such as the diameter of polysaccharide molecules, may potentially influence the inflammatory response against Cryptococcus spp. and may contribute to the differences in granulomatous inflammation between cryptococcal species.
TLR2 plays a critical role in the protection against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conferred by ArtinM administration. ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, induces IL-12 production in macrophages and dendritic cells, which accounts for the T helper1 immunity that results from ArtinM administration. We examined the direct interaction of ArtinM with TLR2using HEK293A cells transfected with TLR2, alone or in combination with TLR1 or TLR6, together with accessory proteins. Stimulation with ArtinM induced NF-κB activation and interleukin (IL)-8 production in cells transfected with TLR2, TLR2/1, or TLR2/6. Murine macrophages that were stimulated with ArtinM had augmented TLR2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, pre-incubation of unstimulated macrophages with an anti-TLR2 antibody reduced the cell labeling with ArtinM. In addition, a microplate assay revealed that ArtinM bound to TLR2 molecules that had been captured by specific antibodies from a macrophages lysate. Notably,ArtinM binding to TLR2 was selectively inhibited when the lectin was pre-incubated with mannotriose. The biological relevance of the direct interaction of ArtinM with TLR2 glycans was assessed using macrophages from TLR2-KOmice, which produced significantly lower levels of IL-12 and IL-10 in response to ArtinM than macrophages from wild-type mice. Pre-treatment of murine macrophages with pharmacological inhibitors of signaling molecules demonstrated the involvement of p38 MAPK and JNK in the IL-12 production induced by ArtinM and the involvement ofPI3K in IL-10 production. Thus, ArtinM interacts directly with TLR2 or TLR2 heterodimers in a carbohydrate recognition-dependent manner and functions as a TLR2 agonist with immunomodulatory properties.
Elevation of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) levels is a vital event that regulates T lymphocyte homeostasis, activation, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The mechanisms that regulate intracellular Ca2+ signaling in lymphocytes involve tightly controlled concinnity of multiple ion channels, membrane receptors, and signaling molecules. T cell receptor (TCR) engagement results in depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores and subsequent sustained influx of extracellular Ca2+ through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels in the plasma membrane. This process termed store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) involves the ER Ca2+ sensing molecule, STIM1, and a pore-forming plasma membrane protein, ORAI1. However, several other important Ca2+ channels that are instrumental in T cell function also exist. In this review, we discuss the role of additional Ca2+ channel families expressed on the plasma membrane of T cells that likely contribute to Ca2+ influx following TCR engagement, which include the TRP channels, the NMDA receptors, the P2X receptors, and the IP3 receptors, with a focus on the voltage-dependent Ca2+ (CaV) channels.
Chagas disease affects 8-11 million people, mostly in Latin America. Sequelae include cardiac, peripheral nervous and/or gastrointestinal disorders, thus placing a large economic and social burden on endemic countries. The pathogenesis and the evolutive pattern of the disease are not fully clarified. Moreover, available drugs are partially effective and toxic, and there is no vaccine. Therefore, there is an urgent need to speed up basic and translational research in the field. Here, we applied automated high-content imaging to generate multiparametric data on a cell-by-cell basis to precisely and quickly determine several parameters associated with in vitro infection of host-cell by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Automated and manual quantification was used to determine the percentage of T. cruzi-infected cells in a 96-well microplate format and the data generated was statistically evaluated. Most importantly, this automated approach can be widely applied for discovery of potential drugs as well as molecular pathway elucidation not only in T. cruzi but also other human intracellular pathogens.
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