Bovine mastitis is mainly caused by bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., which possess different virulence factors, including the capacity for biofilm formation that provides enhanced protection against the action of immune system components and serves as a barrier against the penetration of antimicrobial agents. This study aimed to characterize 181 Staphylococcus spp. Strains—including Staphylococcusaureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in six Brazilian states—by molecular methods. RT-qPCR was used to verify the expression of genes of the ica operon—mainly responsible for biofilm formation—as well as bap and bhp. Chromosome similarity among the isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The icaA gene was detected in 79 (43.6%) isolates, icaB in 24 (13.2%), icaC in 57 (31.4%), and icaD in 127 (70.1%). The bap gene was identified in 66 (36.4%) isolates, while the bhp gene was found in nine (4.9%). RT-qPCR confirmed the expression of the icaA gene in 60 (75.9%) isolates, of icaB in six (25%), of icaC in 26 (45.6%), and of icaD in 80 (63%). Clonal typing of the isolates by PFGE permitted the identification of eight Staphylococcusaureus clusters that simultaneously included ≥3 strains, with a similarity of ≥80%. Regarding the other species studied, three clusters were observed for Staphylococcuschromogenes and four clusters for Staphylococcusepidermidis. Only one cluster each was identified for Staphylococcussaprophyticus and Staphylococcussimulans, while the other species did not form any cluster. With respect to MLST, ST126 and ST1 were the prevalent sequence types in S. aureus, while in S.epidermidis all sequence types were different. These results reveal strains with the same evolutionary origin as other isolates, which might cause infections in humans and animals, suggesting their ability to spread between these species.
Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become the main causative agents of medical device-related infections due to their biofilm-forming capability, which protects them from the host’s immune system and from the action of antimicrobials. This study evaluated the ability of RNA III inhibiting peptide (RIP) to inhibit biofilm formation in 10 strains isolated from clinical materials, including one S. aureus strain, two S. epidermidis, two S. haemolyticus, two S. lugdunensis, and one isolate each of the following species: S. warneri, S. hominis, and S. saprophyticus. The isolates were selected from a total of 200 strains evaluated regarding phenotypic biofilm production and the presence and expression of the ica operon. The isolates were cultured in trypticase soy broth with 2% glucose in 96-well polystyrene plates containing catheter segments in the presence and absence of RIP. The catheter segments were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed inhibition of biofilm formation in the presence of RIP in all CoNS isolates; however, RIP did not interfere with biofilm formation by S. aureus. RIP is a promising tool that might be used in the future for the prevention of biofilm-related infections caused by CoNS.
The ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to produce virulence factors, such as biofilm, added to its increased resistance to antimicrobials can cause infections that are difficult to treat. Many staphylococcal virulence factors are under the control of the accessory gene regulator (agr). The objective of this study was to establish the agr locus and susceptibility of biofilm-producing S. epidermidis specimens to antimicrobial agents, through PCR reactions, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and to analyze the clonal profile of 300 strains isolated from blood culture specimens from inpatients at a University Hospital in Brazil, over a 20-year period by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techniques. The ica operon expression was shown in 83.6% strains, bhp gene in 11.5%, and aap gene in 32.8%. Oxacillin resistance was detected in 90.1%, while 4.9% showed tigecycline resistance, and intermediate resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin was identified in 0.4%. Clonal profile determination showed 11 clusters, with the ST2 type determined as the major cluster. The S. epidermidis biofilm producer demonstrated a predominance of agr I locus, oxacillin resistance, and SCCmec III as well as the potential dissemination of pathogenic clones in hospital settings over long periods.
Nasal carriage of
by healthcare workers is
of great clinical importance as it facilitates the contamination of medical
devices and cross-transmission. However, studies regarding the epidemiology and
(MRSA) within the Primary Health Care in Brazil are scarce.
The current study aimed to detect and characterize
and MRSA strains from the nasal cavities of 63 healthcare working in primary
health care units in order to determine the prevalence of
and MRSA, biofilm formation and resistance profile of these
isolates. PCR reactions were performed for detecting
genes. The phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility was
assessed by the disk diffusion method and biofilm formation by the Congo Red
Agar (CRA) method. The MRSA isolates were typed for the Staphylococcal Cassette
. The prevalence of
nasal carriage of
was 74.6%, of which 72.3% were MRSA
type I (24.4%), III (34.1%), IV (36.6%). Two
(4.9%) isolates presented a non-typeable cassette by the performed technique.
The antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation evidenced penicillin resistance in
, erythromycin resistance in 49.2%, while
37.3% were resistant to oxacillin, 28.8% to cefoxitin, 5.1% to levofloxacin and
5.1% to clindamycin. All isolates were biofilm producers and 96.6% of the
strains contained the
). We have demonstrated a
high prevalence of
and MRSA carriage among health
care working in Primary Health Care units, the presence of
types I, III and IV, in addition to their high
ability to form biofilm, factors that possibly contribute to the dissemination
and persistence of these pathogens within the primary care services. These
observations highlight the importance of broadening the perspective of Health
Care-Associated Infections prevention, including all health care levels, which
are currently little explored. In addition, the dynamics and resistance
transmission still need to be further
clarified to enable the implementation of more effective prevention
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